Obtained information from
the following sources:

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Poaching an escalating
threat to Botswana wildlife , a newspaper report by Laurie Pieters-James under
the Sunday Standard published on the 13 0ctober 2014

South African Population
of the African Elephant report by CITES. SAN Parks. ESPU 1999 (unpublished)
Ivory Markets of Africa. Elephant poaching on the rise in Kruger by Oxpeckers.
ENS-Newswire. ZA DEA Progress on ISMR February, 2017.

Botswana acquires 14 bat
Hark aircrafts to boost anti-poaching operations, news report by Oscar Nkala
published by Defence web on Tuesday 28 June 2016.

Botswana master
anti-poaching unit hit by budget cut report by Oscar Nkala published on the 20 April
2017 under the Press reader.

Poaching is an environmental issue that
poses a serious threat to the tourism industry .It is fuelled by the fact that
ivory has become a high commodity in Asian as such has a high pay-out. Poaching
is an issue of concern in a sense that it bring certain species of animals
close to extinction, these include elephants, rhinos which are already on the
endangered species list. When the number of these magnificent beasts declines
our economy is endanger as we risk losing a major contributor to our foreign
revenue through tourism. No endangered species, equals no tourists which equals
no revenue which in turn will affect the country as a whole.

According the report by Laurie James area
affected include Chobe District and Ngami land in Botswana, however poaching is
a global issue. In Botswana 19 deaths of elephants were stated in the report
however in a period of one month being April 2010, while in the South African
Population report by CITES, 46 deaths of elephant were observed over the years
1980-2016 in Kruger national park and in Namibia 116 deaths were observed in
2016 according Namibia sun.

In order to mediate poaching policies such
as shoot –to-kill were implemented in South Africa and Botswana to curb the
casualties suffered. The government of Botswana has acquired 14 bat hark aircrafts
to boost anti-poaching operations such as aerial patrols. On average one bat
aircraft is 57 500 dollars as such this takes a big chunk out of the funds of
the government. As we stated by Oscar the budget for Botswana is 165 million

The reporting made in the by the 4 various
seems fair with the motive behind them being to raise awareness about  poaching, however Laurie “s report needs
validation as it is very unlikely for 19 casualties to be attained in the
course of 1 month.

2.      Issue:

Obtained information from
the following sources;

Degradation and
desertification worry csos report by Mpho Mokwape published on the 13 September
2013 under the newspaper Mmegi.

Desertification threatens
rural economies report by Shingirai Madondo published on the Monday 22 June

Desertification is a serious issue and
goes hand in hand with land degradation, it is a gradual process where fertile
land changes into a desert or produces desert like conditions. It is caused by
human activities and amplified by drought and deforestation. Since
desertification affects the land’s ability to support life, as such it reduces
crop yields, resulting in farmers being unable to sustain themselves.
Desertification leads to soil erosion results in water being unable to be
trapped in soil, resulting in the land being susceptible to landslides during
heavy rain which in turn could result in serious consequences such as road
accidents, destruction of buildings etc.

Shingirai stated in his report that 91000
square hectors of Botswana is affected by desertification, he added that
attaining soil security is a diminishing prospect because crops are being wiped
out due to the relentless conditions of the desert. Mpho suggested that
Botswana is a beef producing powerhouse and as such is suffering as the
Kalahari region’s grazing land and grazing land around the country is depleting
fast as such the quality and quality of the beef exported is going to
significantly drop this in turn is going to affect our economy as beef is one
of the major exports among the diamond and tourism. The government spends a lot
of funds supporting agricultural schemes like providing farmers with
fertilizers as a way of trying to improve the soil fertility and ultimately the
food security situation.

The reporting done by the two authors
seemed fair, however Shingiria didn’t provide an account as to how the 91000
hectors were obtained as such this needed verification.

3. Issue: Fires

Obtained information from the following

Palapye fires return
report by Archie Mokoka published on the 27 march 2016 under the voice.

Ripple effects by veldt
fires on Botswana-report by Moreri Gabakgore, published on the 16 October 2008
under the newspaper Mmegi.

Fires pose a serious threat to the
environment, they may be caused by man intentionally or accidentally or
naturally occurring they have very destructive consequences. Fires destroyed
property harm life and as such cannot be ignored as an environmental issue. Fires
also pose a threat to human health as the smoke generated during the fires when
inhaled affects the lungs causing difficulties in breathing.

Archie identified Palapye as the area
frequently affected by the fire outbreaks, he stated that 12 homes had been ravaged
that year alone while Moreri  identified
the Chobe region and Ngami land as the area of interest and stated that 70% of
the Chobe had been affected with 1078 recognized species of plants were

The author Mokoka suggested the cause of
the re-occurring fires in palapye was a super natural creature known as a
thokolosi and this brings his report into question and thus we can infer that
his motives were based on newspapers sells so we can conclude that he is biased.
His report needs validation as no one has ever proven the existence of the
thokolosi beyond a reasonable doubt.


4. Issue: Planting Trees

Obtained information from the following

Mogae launches One
million trees Project by Gothataone Moeng , published on the  12 of September 2012under the newspaper



Planting trees is
positive measure or issue that aims at mediating the negative issues like soil
erosion, desertification as well as climate control. As we know trees are a
sink for carbon dioxide which is the leading greenhouse gas, influencing
climate change through global warming. As such planting is an important issue
that needs to practice every year because of the stated benefits.

The project aims to plant
200000 each year over the course of 5 years thus achieving 0ne million trees. The
trees planted will mainly consist fruit trees and indigenous trees thus
providing a means for food security and employment thus is an initiative for
poverty eradication.

This report had
validation as the same story aired on the news/Dikgang( a television broadcast occurring
every day at 7 pm) conveying the same information even though it was presented
by different reporter. As such it can be said that the author was fair.


5. Issue: Foot and mouth

Obtained information from
the following sources:

Will Botswana ever stop
Foot and mouth  disease in its tracks
,report by Joseph Balise published on the 22 September 2016 under the newspaper
Sunday Standard

Botswana reports
suspected foot and mouth outbreak, report by Glenneis Kriel published on the 22
September 2017 under farmer’s weekly.

and Mouth is an infectious, fatal, viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed
animals causing a high fever followed by blisters inside the mouth and on the
feet that rupture and cause lameness. It can be spread by infected animals or through
contact with contaminated farming equipment, vehicles, clothing and feed. An
outbreak of the disease affects large populations and thus has the potential to
affect Botswana economy by targeting cattle affecting the beef export or targeting
wildlife such as buffalo affecting the export tourism.

indicated that the disease had killed 200 cattle in a village called Matsiloje
in 2011 outbreak, the author established that because of the disease the
disease led to the loss of the lucrative European Union (EU) market which
sustains the government’s wholly owned parastatal – Botswana Meat Commission.
On the other hand Kriel stated that the government had donated 473 200 doses of
FMD vaccines to neighbouring country, Zimbabwe, to prevent the spread of the
disease across the border after an outbreak. The government of Botswana losses
a lot of money when outbreaks occur, even in preventive measures to tackle the

Since the foot and mouth disease crosses
boarder affecting different countries reports done on it have to be accurate as
such reports on foot and mouth can be trusted.



6. Issue; DROUGHT

Obtained information from the following

Botswana tackles worst
drought in 30 years, report by news 24 published on 2015-07-30 19:06

Botswana declares drought
a disaster, viewed on the dstv channel 403,aired Thursday 14 July 2016

Drought is a prolonged
period of low rainfall/below average observed over a given area. Drought is a
very serious issues as it has very adverse effects these include death of
wildlife and plants (affecting the economy in terms of tourism), drying of
water bodies such as rivers ,lakes dams resulting in water shortages affecting
crop yield ,even threatening our survival. It makes the government sustain
losses in terms of mitigation measures. According to news24 a special budget of
about $44m was passed by parliament on Wednesday after President Ian Khama
declared a general countrywide drought, the first since 1984.News 24 is an
international organisation it has a good reputation and thus only provides news
that are validated.

7. Issue: Malaria

Obtained information from
the following sources:

Botswana records
declining malaria cases report By NNASARETHA KGAMANYANE, published on the 16
march 2017 under the newspaper Mmegi.


Malaria is life-threatening
mosquito-borne blood disease caused by a Plasmodium parasite. It is transmitted
to humans through the bite of the Anopheles mosquito. Malaria is very important
environmental issue of concern as it causes death and hard high mortality rates
before decline as observed in the report. Botswana has reduced malaria
caseloads by 40 to 70 percent in 2010 to 2015 respectively this was stated in
the report by the author Kgamanyane. The other further stated that the
elimination 8 was given US$18 million of which was used to buy the five cars
they donated to our country to help the Minister and her Ministry fight malaria.
He concluded that the country was given rewards of excellence from the African
Leaders Malaria Alliance for our achievement in reducing malaria.


8. Issue; Water

Obtained information from
the following sources:

BCL poisons workers,
report By Ditiro Motlhabane published on Monday, 24 October 2016 under the Patriot


Water contamination is a
very important environmental issue in the sense that contaminated water has bad
effects on human health. Serious bacteria present in contaminated water can
cause illnesses like typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis. Heavy metals are
present in contaminated drinking water, they can cause vomiting, diarrhoea,
dehydration, and high fever.  According to
the DItoro BCL operations gobble 16 million litres of water monthly supplied by
Water Utilities Corporation (WUC) – only recycles a percentage of the wastewater,
and releases excess effluent into channels connecting Mathathane and Motloutse
rivers. Downstream, this contaminated water from the two rivers is used by
local communities to water livestock and for other domestic uses, compromising
the health of the animals and people.

                 9. Issue: Heatwave

                 Obtained information from the
following sources:

Heat wave hits Botswana,
report by Daily news online, published on Oct
07 Wed,2015

A heatwave is a prolonged period of excessively
hot weather. A heat wave poses serious health threats as it can cause heat strokes,
dehydration, heat exhaustion it is important to note that these health threats
are potentially fatal. According to the daily news temperatures over the
country are expected to reach maximums of between 36 and 40 degrees. People are
advised to drink plenty of water to curb these adverse effects.

10. Issue: Air pollution

                 Obtained information from the
following sources:

BCL poisons workers,
report By Ditiro Motlhabane published on Monday, 24 October 2016 under the
Patriot Sunday.

Air pollution is the introduction
of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects into the air thus diminishing
air quality. Air pollution has various consequences which include acid rain,
reduced visibility, smog and causes serious help problems in human health,
causing serious matters such as lung cancer, asthma e.t.c

             According to Ditiro Research has
shown that the BCL smelter emits 534,000 tonnes              of sulphur dioxide and a further
5,500 tonnes of silica and nickel dust annually. BCL also pumps out 330,000
tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere directly and indirectly per annum.


1. Most of the issues gathered are
negative on the environment however they are some which are positive on the environment,
most of these issues come from the source newspapers, particularly Mmegi and
the Sunday Standard.

2. IN order to get correct truth
information I urge journalists to follow the following steps.

Get to the original
source- this entails getting original documentation about certain issues to
avoid getting any miss leading information.

Evaluate the source. This
deals rechecking the originally of the provided information, in cases where it
is an interview it involves questioning the reliability of your informant.

Classify your
information-Carefully categorise your information as factual, friction, rumour

Challenge the information:
test the information by introducing it to a person who might want to disprove
its reliability, creditability that way if you can defend it then its factual.