1.         The difference between
weather and climate is the measure of time. Weather is experienced by everyone every
day and have conditions that occurred very recently or are currently happening.
Weather
is the way the atmosphere is behaving and how it may affect life and humans in
their daily activities. It is also short-term and changes can happen to the atmosphere
from minutes to hours. The current temperature, dew point, cloud cover and
precipitation are examples of weather. The weather helps people around the
world to determine what to wear, how to interact in activities, or even what
transportation they may need to use for that day. Weather sure does play an
important role in our daily lives. Many components of weather exist and some
include sunshine, rain, winds, and blizzards. On the other hand, climate
describes the long term weather a location will have for that time. Climate is
mainly based on the averages and variation measured over a few decades. For a
good climate data, it must include at least 30 years of data for a certain
location. Some examples of climate data may include normal high and low
temperature, typical monthly rainfall, most accumulation of snow in a year and.
Climate can also control how organisms live and where they may need to live. Studying
climate and a changing climate is important because it will show how it will
affect people around the world. Rising global temperatures are expected to
raise sea levels, and change precipitation and other local climate conditions.
For example, changing regional climate could alter forests and water supplies
and could lead to affecting human health and animals. In the end, weather and
climate may have some differences, but they are very important to all lives on
this planet.

·        
Ecology 4th edition textbook, Bowman.
William D., Cain Michael L., Hacker Sally D., pg 23-25. 2014.

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·        
Dr. J. Marshall Shepherd, NASA/GSFC, Drew
Shindell, NASA/GISS, Cynthia M. O’Carroll, NASA/GSFC. NASA
– What’s the Difference Between Weather
and Climate?  www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/noaa-n/climate/climate_weather.
2005.

·        
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration. How is weather different
from climate? w.noaa.gov/explainers/what-s-difference-between-climate-and-weather.
2016.

 

 

 

2. The
main reason the variability of physical conditions are more important than the
average conditions is because of its extreme environmental conditions like the
high and low temperatures or even droughts. These are important because it
helps determine the mortality in organisms or if they are able to survive in
these extremes. The specie distributions often reflects on extreme
environmental conditions more than average conditions.

The timing of changes in
the physical environment is as important as exemplified by the response of
vegetation to the timing of precipitation which is not reflected in average
annual conditions.

 

3. Three
abiotic factors that can help determine where organisms are found globally are light,
water, and temperature. Light plays an important role because it is the primary
source of energy to almost all living organisms.  The light energy is used by the heterotrophs
to manufacture food by the process of photosynthesis by combining together
other inorganic substances. The quality of light affects the aquatic
ecosystems, the blue and red light is absorbed here and it does not penetrate
deep into the water, however some types of algae have specialized pigments that
absorb these types of lights. The intensity of light depends upon the season of
the year. Some plants flower only during a certain time of the year. One of the
factors is due to the length of dark period. Depending on the intensity of
light the plants are classified as short-day plants. The third abiotic factor
is water, which is commonly used by habitats of plants and animals that live in
aquatic environments, however all components of the ecosystem require water to
live. For example, fish and water plants require water, so they must stay in
the ocean to survive, while cactuses in the desert must store water within
themselves in order to survive the harsh dry environments. The last abiotic
factor is temperature which has a major influence where plants and animals go
in live in order to survive. For example when there is a frost, certain types
of plants can survive, while other plants may freeze and die. When the flowers
bloom during the day or night it is caused by the temperature that changes
either the day or night. Another example is when animals are able to determine
if they are warm blooded or cold blooded. In the end, all these three abiotic
factors help determine where organisms live around the world and help them
survive in their environment.

·        
Ecology 4th edition textbook, Bowman.
William D., Cain Michael L., Hacker Sally D., pg 23-25. 2014.

·        
Rubatzky V.E., Yamaguchi M. (1997)
Environmental Factors Influencing the Growth of Vegetables. In: World
Vegetables. Springer, Boston, MA

·        
Tutorvista.com Abiotic Factors.

 

4. Dear President
Trump,

            In the past week, my team of physical
oceanographers and I received a report from our collages that a massive oil
spill had occurred in the Gulf of Mexico. This oil spill threatens the lives of
wildlife animals, but the worst part is that it could soon spread to the shores
of western Africa and Europe. If this were to happen, the United States would
lose millions of dollars and have major conflicts with these countries. My goal
is for my team to go out to the Gulf of Mexico in order to try and study the
way the oil will turn and how it could potentially head into the North Atlantic
Ocean. My
team and I predict that the floating oil will make it to the Atlantic because
of two main reasons winds and tropical storms. The winds are important and
influence how an oil slick advances through the ocean. Winds move at very fast
rates and could potentially also be affected by tropical storms. Tropical
storms are unpredictable and could spread oil in many directions of the ocean. In
order to correctly study the effects of the oil spill and how it could soon
affect these countries my team and I will be using several hundred devices
known as drifters which will provide us with information about ocean
circulation patterns in real time. The data presented from these devices will
allow my team to predict which way the oil spilled will travel through the ocean.
Drifters weigh about 20 pounds and have four main components: the body, sails,
floats, and a transmitter package. A drifter can be positioned from a ship or
an airplane. When the drifter is floating in the water, the transmitter will
then send a signal to an Earth polar orbiting satellite. This data is then
processed and distributed. This data will help us find the path of the oil
slick and what are the best methods to use in order to save marine organisms.
In the end, I want my study to succeed, but in order for it to happen I would
need some funding for my research and physical oceanographer team in order to
help the country and the marine life. Mr. President if you could please help us
in this amazing research we would sure appreciate it.

 

Sincerely,

Pedro Torres/ physical oceanographer team

·        
Ecology 4th edition textbook, Bowman.
William D., Cain Michael L., Hacker Sally D., pg 23-25. 2014.

·        
Drifters. oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/tools/drifters/drifters.html.
2013.

·        
NOAA. Oil and Chemical Spill oceanservice.noaa.gov/hazards/spills/