ABSTRACT

For upgrading system efficiency
automation is needed .besides for reliability and quality of electric service depends on
automation nowadays .Automation is not only for upgrading the quality of a
system it also reduces human effort as well as minimize time of production. We
know that for over and under voltage problem many trouble happens in home and
outdoor power system. For example insulation and appliance damage. In my report
I will describe how over and under voltage problem creates problems to our
system and also try to give a solution how to minimize this problem for three
phase system by using automation which will be prepared by GSM module which
will send sms alert for if fault occurs in system.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

Keywords: Systems;
Arduino; Microcontroller; Proteus; System-On-Chip (SOC); Relays; MC circuit
Breaker; LCD display; Voltage sensor;

 Current Controller.

 

 

 

 

         

    
INTRODUCTION

Without
electricity we cannot think of our modern life. For continuous electrical
supply electrical power distribution system works as an important factor by
supplying electricity to the consumers of the system. In this system fault
occurs .so for minimizing fault and increase the efficiency of power we need
good protection system. this protection system will secure the generation &
distribution system from the occurrence which are violating the supply .in
order to increase the protection system in three phase I think automation will
help a lot as it will find and solve the problem automatically an if not
possible then it will find the problem to solve manually . this smart
protection device will also helpful for home uses .as we know for home safety
circuit breaker is used which is a common protection system our country . When
over and under voltage happens circuit breaker burns out to protect the
connected appliances to the system like TV, fan, refrigerator etc. For consume
power we need to manually fix the circuit breaker and this the main problem of
circuit breaker. From this reason the purpose of my project to add automation
in the place of circuit breaker .that means when a device exceeds the maximum
voltage it can take the system will trip. My device gives an error output if input voltage crosses the range beyond
the voltage window as two comparators are used as window comparator. A relay also
used to cut off the load for safety issue. In this project we are going to learn about relay and circuit
breaker and their response for over and under voltage condition in three phase
system.

                                    
Motivation

In this era
of development we are capable of getting mobility, efficiency and flexibility,
more over we need protection from the thing we are using to boost up our daily
life. this thing motivated me to design a protection system for over and under
voltage for three phase system in such way which will give protection to both
industrial and home uses .From past we can see that in our developing country
accidents because of excess flow of electricity in increasing day by day . I
think this project will help to solve the protection problem and also it will
help other to study and know about the protection system widely.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            Death, Fire and
Injuries

 Electricity is one of the basic needs of
modern society. The chance of accident due to electricity is raising as new
equipment’s are connecting to the grid every day. Some statics are given below
emphasizing the overall injuries, fire and death over years of 1992 to 2012.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From this statics it is clear that
death due to ‘High Voltage’ and ‘Protection Failure’ is greater than death in natural disaster.

From 1992 to 2012 the overall demand of
electricity is increasing. According to the report submitted by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

 Key findings in the report have to do
specifically with home structure fires involving electrical distribution or
lighting equipment, including: 

·        
63
percent involved wiring and related equipment.

·        
74
percent cited some type of electrical failure or malfunction.

·        
Nearly
half (44 percent) of civilian deaths were caused by fires that began in the
bedroom, living room, family room, or den.

·        
Wire
or cable insulation was the item first ignited in 32 percent of electrical
distribution or lighting equipment home structure

 

 

 

From the
data we can say that, the damage because to ‘Protection Failure’ is causing deaths and injuries around the
world.

 

 

 

 

 

Switchgear and protection

 

For turning on or
off the electrical circuit a protection system is used which is known as
switchgear .The examples of switchgear are

·       
Switches

·       
 Fuses

·       
circuit breaker

·       
Isolator

·       
relays,

·       
current
and potential transformer

·       
indicating
instrument

·       
lightning arresters and control panels

The switchgear system is linked with
the supply system directly. The high and low voltage side of the power
transformer are equipped with switchgear for minimizing damage because of
fault. If the system need testing and maintenance switchgear helps to
de-energizing the system. It also helps to clear fault from the system by
turning off the system. We know that high current flow through the system if
fault occurs and for the reason the equipment get damaged and the service is
interrupted .this is the reason switchgear and automated protective device is
used to protect line and other equipment from receiving damage.

Automatic switchgear consists of
relay and circuit breaker which disconnects faulty part of the system by
tripping .when it gets a faulty signal in the system it close the trip of the
circuit breaker, in this case relay helps to send the signal if there is any
fault occurring in a part of the system .circuit breaker can open or close an
electrical circuit in both over and under voltage condition.in automated system
circuit breaker can break circuit without replacement. This type of circuit
breaker are using instead of fuse which were widely used in the system and was
costly as it has to be replaced while burnt.

Essential Features of Switchgear

The essential features of
switchgear are: 

1.     
Complete
reliability: switchgear
isolates the faulty part of the system and keeps the system safe from damage.
It also helps to operate the system by neglecting its faulty part.

2.     
Absolutely
certain discrimination: switchgear isolates the faulty
section of the system without hampering the section which is perfect, to ensure
continuity of supply.

3.     
Quick
operation: switchgear
operates quickly when fault occurs as faulty creates short circuit current and
it can cause damage to the healthy part of the system.

4.     
 Provision for manual control: it must have manual control
option. If automatic control is damaged then manual control can reduce danger.

 

 

 

 Over
Voltage Protection

When the system detects voltage
beyond its rated voltage, protection system shuts down. This is called over voltage
protection.

From over voltage problem circuit can
catch fire and it can leads to mass destruction if many components are
connected together. For this reason power supply system uses over voltage
protection for safety propose.

There are two types of over voltage,

·       
External Over Voltage &

·       
Internal over Voltage

 

 

External over voltages occurs mainly for lightning. For this
condition excess current flow through the line which has no connection with the
supplying system. Internal Over voltages happens due to change in the operating
condition.

Effects Of Over Voltage

·       
Damages insulation of the system

·       
Produces high frequency

·       
Failure of transformer

·       
Failure of rotating machines

·       
Sometimes death because of 
high magnetic field passes through human body

 

Ideal characteristics of an over voltage protection circuit

For safety of the system the basic principal of over voltage
protection is not to interfere with normal function of the circuit and should
work fast to reduce damage

The over voltage protection circuit
may be constructed using discrete components, integrated circuits, mechanical
devices such as relays, etc. These can either connected internally or
externally depending on the circuits involved. For example we can say about
crowbar circuit .it is cheap circuit which is used in over voltage protection.

Over-voltage protection crowbar
circuit

 

Under Voltage

Under Voltage is the decrease in AC RMS voltage at power frequency to
less than 90% of the network nominal voltage and for duration longer than one
minute. According to IEEE 1159/1995, decreased voltage will range from 80% to
90% of the nominal voltage and for duration longer than one minute.

 

Under
voltage causes problems in the system besides sometimes it creates full
operation break.

Voltage
Sag Impacts:

Problems
due to voltage sag are given below

(1)
Elements that microprocessor based control systems gives incorrect information.

(2)
Tripping of contactors and electromagnetic relays.

(3)
 Less efficiency of motor and other
system that rotates.

Key Features:

Key features to ensure safety are
given below –

1)     Admin can access security control;

2)     Real time data;

3)     Total Usage history keeps in memory ;

4)     Controlled by  GSM module;

5)     SMS facility;

6)     Auto ON/OFF facility;

 

1.      Admin can access security control:

By a fixed person the system will
response that means the data and access is fully password proof.

2.      Real time data:

From the module user can see the
actual usage data which is consumed.

3.      Total Usage history keeps in memory:

User can see the saved data through
GSM module any time he wants.there is no possibility of data loss.

4.      Remote accessibility:

User can get the usage information
from anywhere as he can get the notification by SMS .user can control the usage
or on/off system from distant places.

5.      SMS facility:

During fault
occurs the device sends SMS t to the preset mobile number. The number is pre inserted
in the Arduino code. For this function the user is always updated with the
device.

6.      Automation:

This is a smart device which is
controlled by the user and it is smart enough to maintain the users demand. For
example it turns off when it sees fault to save the system.

7.      Transparency in electrical billing:

In many country we can see that we
are paying more bill than usage as electric meter is tempered by the electric
board and for extra money they do this type of work. But using this device will
stop them to do this because user gets the usage by sms or from their personal
access. So they can pay the actual bill they consumed.

Advantages:

Of course we can get enough
facilities from an automated device rather than analog. They are as follows-

1)     Highly efficient  and cheap;

2)     Fast operation;

3)     Fully  automated;

4)     Consumer can compare between bills
they get;

5)     One admin control;

6)     Fully password proof;

7)     Online data storage ;

8)     Distant control facility;

9)     Alert user when fault occurs.

 

 

Chapter 5

Future Work

i
want to add more components in future to make my project more efficient in
future uses ,such as

·        
Develop in three
phase protection system

·        
Gas meter

·        
Security lock for
admin access

·        
AI operating
system

Develop Three Phase Protection System:

I will try to make my project more effective
by adding more relay and control system . will try to make it even more cheap
so that users can easily adopt the system. I will add higher communications modules such as ZigiBee,
Wi-Fi, Wireless M-Bus. Both 2.4 GHz and Sub-1 GHz… It will turn on by using three-phase
line voltage so extra power will not be needed to turn on the device.

Introducing Gas Meter

A
Gas Meter is used to measure the volume of fuel gases .for example natural gas.
The seventh largest gas producing country in Asia is Bangladesh. Such as
electricity large amount of gas is stolen every year, if consumer pays the bill
exactly then everyone can use this natural recourse without any problem. The
price of per unit gas will reduce. If I can establish this meter then user will
be able to see the usage of gas and pay the bills. Also the government will get
to know that how much their consumers are using and how much new consumers are
connecting with the supply and can easily calculate the bills. it will help
them to prepare a yearly data .I will try to combine the electric and gas meter
together so that government can take both data easily .in this way people will
not be able to steal resources and normal people can be able to use the resource
without any interruption.

Security Lock for Admin Access

My system can get sms through sms but I want
to make android and ios app so that my project becomes smarter and more easy to
use. For that reason I am trying to develop a code to work forward in future. I
want to publish the software in play store and ios store or other local third
party store so that the availability is smooth.

If users do not enable
the device admin app then the system will communicate with the user through gsm
but if h/she enables the app then the system will use both way function for the
safety and easy excess to the user. That means if no software enabled the
system smart feature will not on but the system will run generally.

Artificial Intelligence Operating
System

The
ability of a system to calculate, reason, perceive relationships and analogies,
learn from experience, store and retrieve information from memory, solve
problems, comprehend complex ideas, use natural language fluently, classify,
generalize, and adapt new situations. Goals of
AI

·       
To Create Expert Systems ? the systems which exhibit intelligent
behavior, learn, demonstrate, explain, and advice its users.

·       
To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines ? Creating systems
that understand, think, learn, and behave like humans.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are many types of intelligence system. Among
them some of the system we can implement in our device for a better and advance
response. Those are,

Linguistic intelligence

The ability to speak, recognize, and use
mechanisms of phonology (speech sounds), syntax (grammar), and semantics
(meaning).

Narrators, Orators

Logical-mathematical intelligence

The ability of use and understand relationships
in the absence of action or objects. Understanding complex and abstract
ideas.

Mathematicians, Scientists

 

These two are the most
compatible with our current system. Merging these two with our current system
will make the system fully automatic machine with automation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The main objective of this project was to introduce both way
communications through internet using this device. This meter will ensure a
more secure and transparent billing and monitoring system. Users will get more
clear bills and real-time usage availability will rise concern about wasting
electricity. This will bring benefit to both consumers and country. This meter
designed in a different way from the exiting meter. Distributors will be able
to have more control over the distribution system and the country will get a
more advance and smart power distribution system. Moreover, the electricity
stealing will reduce and government will be able to get more revenue and less
loss. In short, to introduce a smart and advance grid to developing countries
like Bangladesh, this device will be the first step of a new era in case of
Power Management and Distribution.