Abstract:  In this modern world, people are busy with
their daily chores. So, they could not concentrate on their personal health, as
well as people are not interested on investing  money on buying exercising machines and become
stressful  physically and mentally. Another
problem faced by the world is energy crises. Many experts say that in future
there will be more demand for energy and there will be a large energy
deployment. Concentrating on these two problems the   paper  
is  aimed  at 
producing  electricity  with 
the  help  of 
tread mill that  run   or  operate  manually. 
In this paper, two benefits are obtained out of one. The manually
operated treadmill runs when the runner does some work on it. The  output 
is  fed  to 
the  dc generator  and 
the regulator  provides  required 
amount of constant output. The  
paper  provides  seven 
times  of  the 
charging  of  the 
mobile   or  load  
when  the  tread mill 
is  operated  for 
fifteen minutes.  Hence,
electricity is not only generated but also saved to some extent.  In addition, this system also keeps fitness
lovers fit.

 

Keywords: Manual treadmill, DC generator, gear, regulator,
load and booster circuit.

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I.  INTRODUCTION

 

                Energy is
available in various resources. The two main categories of energy are renewable
and non-renewable energy. The major sources of renewable energy are solar,
wind, tidal, hydro and geothermal energy. Renewable energy is an energy that
utilizes the sources available in nature.

 

                 A treadmill is a mechanical device that is
used as an exercise machine for running and walking by staying in the same
place. Sir William cubit in the year 1818 developed the manual treadmill. The
main purpose for the invention is to give punishment to the prisoners. The
Prisoners had to work on the manual treadmill for 6 – 12 hours a day. Grinding
grains, pumping water, power ventilators in mines are some of the punishments
given to prisoners.

 

                Presently,
there are two types of treadmill that are used for exercising. They are
electric treadmill and manual treadmill. The electric treadmill uses electric
power as the input where the conveyor belt is rotated by means of motor. Another
type is manual treadmill here the conveyor belt is moved by the mechanical
effort of the user. This paper describes about the use of manual treadmill.

 

                                The manual
treadmill converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. So, the generation
of electricity through manual treadmill comes under renewable form of
energy.  The manual treadmill uses up the
waste mechanical energy that is delivered during the period of exercising and
convert into useful electrical energy. This output electrical energy obtained
can be used for energizing small to large electrical gadgets depend upon the
amount of energy that is delivered at the period of operation.

 

                 The manual treadmill is provided with a large
conveyor belt, when the user works on the manual treadmill the belt rotates
from the mechanical energy applied by the user. The manual treadmill has one or
more flywheel. The flywheel is connected with the belt and set into motion due
to the rotation of the belt. The unwanted mechanical energy obtained from the
flywheel is converted into an electrical energy. The amount of electrical
energy produced also depends upon the number of flywheel connected to the
system.

 

                Cost is the major drawback of
the existing electric treadmill system. Some of the treadmill uses loud motors
which interfere with other activities of the nearby equipment. Maintaining and
working on an electric treadmill always requires a professional trainee. 

                The conveyor belt in the
electric treadmill rotates by providing an electrical energy to it and the user
works on the running belt whereas, in manual treadmill the user gets the
mechanical power as input to move or run the belt and performs the work. The
output from the work is fed as a mechanical input to the generator that
delivers electrical output. So, the process is vice versa.

 

                 
Manual treadmill is used in order to reduce drawback of electric
treadmill. It is not only used for producing electricity but also to keep the
runner fit by working with more effort than electric treadmill.

 

                In section II,
description is given for  manual
treadmill. Section III discusses about different parameters and results. . The future
work and conclusion are discussed in the Section V.

 

II.
PROPOSED TREADMILL

 

                The treadmill
works on the basis of energy conversion. When a user is exercising on a
treadmill the effort that is put by him can be converted as a useful energy.

 

                The manual treadmill is provided
with a conveyor belt. The belt moves by applying the mechanical power delivered
by the user and drives the flywheel. The flywheel is attached with the belt and
rotates the gear attached with it. The gear setup is selected depending upon
the amount of energy required by the user from the manual treadmill. The gear
that is found attached to the flywheel is known as the driving gear and the
other gears are known as the driven gear. 

               

                The number of teeth in the
driven gear will be half in number with the number of teeth in the driving
gear. One side of the driving gear is attached to the flywheel and the other
end is connected to the shaft of the dc generator.

 

                The rating for the dc generator
also depends upon the amount of electrical output required by the user. The
electrical energy obtained as the output from the dc generator is further sent
to the booster circuit. In the booster circuit, the output voltage is boosted
up from 2 V to 5 V.

 

                The regulator circuit consists
of an IC 7805 voltage regulator, which regulates and produces constant output of
5 V to the load.

 

                Normally, electrical gadgets
like mobile phone, chargers and the batteries can be connected to the treadmill
setup as load. They can also be stored and used in future for further
improvement on the manual treadmill.

 

 

 

 

Block
Diagram:

 

 

 

  

                The main objectives of the proposed
system is to produce, save energy and generate electricity at low cost. The
generation of electricity through manual treadmill not only reduces the
pollution but also save energy to some extent.

 

 

HARDWARE
IMPLEMENTATION

 

 

 

 

 

 The above setup is the manual
treadmill arrangement along with gear set up.

 

 

III   PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

 

                The readings are
recorded from three persons belonging to different weight by measuring the
parameters such as speed and voltage.

 

                The electrical equipments used
for the measurements are tachometer and multimeter.

 

                Speed can be measured using
tachometer in terms of rpm (revolution per minute).Voltage can be measured
using multimeter in terms of V (volt). 

 

                The rating of dc generator used
is 12V and 1500 rpm.

 

Gear ratio:

                Driving gear = 90 teeth

                Driven gear = 36 teeth

 

Number of rotations
= Driving gear/ Driven gear

                                    = 90/36

                                       =2.5 times

 

                For one rotation of driving gear,
the driven gear is rotated 2.5 times the driving gear. If the teeth of driven
gear reduced then the number of rotations of the same will be increased.

TABULATION
FOR SPEED (rpm) Vs VOLTAGE (V):

 
WEIGHT(kg)

 
SPEED(rpm)

 
VOLTAGE(V)

 
 
57

 
308
509
602

 
2.3
5.4
6.8

 
 
66

 
309
510
615

 
4.5
6.6
7.7

 
 
 
72

 
312
508
605
813
915

 
5.3
7.4
10.3
11.6
13.2

 

                From the above table, it can be
inferred that if the speed increases then the voltage increases for a constant
weight is considered.

                 In the above table, for the set of reading
with person between 75-80 kg the voltage obtained for the speed of 900 rpm is equal
to that of the voltage obtained by the person between 65-70 kg running at 600
rpm. It is inferred that weight also as an account in the output voltage.

                A person cannot run at required
speed.  Hence as  person with different weight can run at different
speed. The user cannot accurately maintain at a constant speed. Hence the speed
slightly varies.

The
above tabulation is also checked for different weights.

 
SPEED(rpm)

 
WEIGHT(kg)

 
VOLTAGE(V)

 
 
312

 
57
 
66
 
72
 

 
2.3
 
4.5
 
5.3

 
 
510

 
57
 
66
 
72
 

 
5.4
 
6.6
 
7.4

 
 
 
605

 
57
 
66
 
72
 

 
6.8
 
7.8
 
10.3
 
 
 

 

               

IV CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

 

                The manual
operating treadmill is simple in design. This electricity generator is a more
sustainable one. A wide range of health problems can be managed using this
manual treadmill. It is useful for areas where electricity is not available.

 

                Electrical energy can be saved
by using this low cost manual treadmill with electricity generator.  Greenhouse gases can be reduced up to some
extent and strength of muscles can also be improved.

 

                The generation of electricity
through treadmill can be expanded in future in many ways to serve many purposes
such as to produce electrical energy and get fit.

 

                As a part of future work, the
number of gear systems can be increased and large amount of output voltage can
be obtained. The energy can be stored in a power bank or in batteries.