Agriculture
is not only essential but also a major sector that plays a most significant
role in Pakistan’s economy. Its contribution in GDP is 19.53 percent and delivers
42.3 percent employment opportunity to country’s labor force whereas, 60% rural
population is directly or indirectly dependant on agriculture for the
livelihood. Agriculture is one of the main sectors for
playing a dynamic role in the economic growth, development and in providing raw
material for Pakistan’s local industry (GOP, 2017).

Significant oilseed crops
are divided into two groups such as specific customary and non-conventional. Among
traditional oilseed crops are cotton, rapeseed/mustard, groundnut and sesame whereas
non-traditional crops include sunflower and canola. (Baig and Ali, 1982). Total
edible oil production within the country is only 17 percent of the demand while
rest of 83 percent edible oil is imported at the rate of massive foreign
exchange. Edible oil is highly valuable
components of nutrition and Pakistan has severe shortage of eatable oils. Total
edible oil production within the country is only 17 percent of the demand while
rest of 83 percent edible oil is imported at the rate of massive foreign
exchange (Anonymous,2016-17).  Wheat, rice, cotton and sugarcane are major yields
which represent for 82 percent of the value included in the major crops. Their
total and average contribution in overall agriculture is 32.8 percent and 33.1
percent. They contribute 7.1 percent to GDP. Whereas, minor crops such as
rapeseed, mustard, canola, safflower contribute to 11.1 percent in overall agriculture (ministry of food and agriculture, 2008).

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 Area estimated
for rapeseed production in 2017 was 35.69 million hectares and for 2016 was
33.63 mha over all the world and that production area showed an increase of 3
million hectares from last year. The estimated yield for rapeseed production in
2017 was 2.04 metric tons per hectare and last year it was 2.06 metric tons per
hectare over all world and yield showed a decline of .02 metric tons per
hectare from the last year. Production for rapeseed in 2017 was 72.86 million
metric tons and for 2016 was 69.33 million metric tons over all world and
production showed an increase of 3.67 million metric tons.

 

India holds a position in rapeseed economy of the
world with 4th rank in area and production 7.9 million metric tons.
Soybean, groundnut and rapeseed-mustard are the
significant oilseed crop in India contributing about 79% and 88% to its
aggregate land and production, separately (USDA, 2013).

 

Total cultivated area of India 2017 under rapeseed
crop was 6.50 million hectares while in 2016 it was 5.75 million hectares and
that showed an increase of .75 million hectares from last year in India. India
estimated yield of rapeseed in 2017 was 1.00 metric tons per hectares while
last year it was 1.03 metric tons per hectare that presented a decline of .03
metric tons per hectares. India rapeseed production in 2017 was 6.50 million
metric tons while last year 5.92 million metric tons that showed India
increased production of rapeseed. In India estimated average yield of
rapeseed-mustard crop during 2016-2017 was 1069kg/hectare.  

 

Rapeseed is
the 2nd biggest oilseed crop produced in  rabi season. Pakistan rapeseed harvested area for 2017 was 0.20
million hectares and for 2016 was 0.23 million hectares that show decline of
0.03 million hectares from last year in Pakistan.  Regardless favourable domestic prices and
higher import duties on eligible oil, planting progress declined by 20 percent
from the same period the previous year. 
Pakistan estimated yield of rapeseed in 2017 was 0.95 metric tons per
hectare and last year was 0.96 metric tons per hectare that is decline 0.01
metric tons per hectare (FAS,2017). Total production of Pakistan 2017 under
rapeseed crop was 0.19 million metric tons while in 2016 it was 0.22 million
metric tons that is Pakistan have decline the rapeseed production for last year
(FAS,2017).

 

Total cultivated area of Punjab 2001 under rapeseed
crop was 128.9 million hectare and Sindh 74.2 million hectares and KPK 24.3
million hectares and Balochistan was 44.7 million hectares.  Punjab production for rapeseed in 2001 was
127.6 million metric tons while Sindh was 59.4 million tons, KPK was 15.4
million tons and Balochistan was 28.2 million tons (ASOP,2012).

 

 

 

Rapeseed is all around adjusted in mild district and
needs cool temperature to develop until blossoming. Then after blossoming it
bears high temperature. The development rapeseed cycle might be as long as 380
days or as short as 70 days. In between crops of rapeseed and mustard, sarson
is the greatest helpless to frost damage while, taramira and raya are most tolerant
to extreme climate environment. Rapeseed crop can be grown on variety of soils like heavy and
light type. The pH required for its development ranges from 5.5 to 8.0.