An individual’s
brain is made up of about 100 billion brain cells, which are scientifically
known as neurons, they carry messages in in the form of electrical impulses. Each
neuron has a cell body which is where genetic information and energy is stored
and each neuron also has a nucleus. A neuron’s cell body has branches coming
out of it which are also known as dendrites, these are receivers and work by getting
information from other neurons. An axon is connected to the cell body is long
and signals travel down the axon in order to get to other neurons. When a neuron becomes activated by a
certain stimulus (e.g. touching something), it sends signals down to the end of
an axon which is called a nerve impulse. A nerve impulse is how the nervous
system is able to process coded information in the brain. The neuron then
releases chemicals through the axon into the synaptic cleft (the gap between
the end of an axon branch and receiving neuron), the released chemicals are
then taken in by specific receptors that have certain shapes depending on the
neurotransmitter they’re receiving. There are four main types of
neurotransmitters which are Acetylcholine (ACH), Dopamine (DA), Serotonin (SHT)
and Noradrenaline (NA).