Fitness
Function for Energy Efficient Multipath Routing           

                
Protocol   in   MANET                                                                                                                                

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Abstract:

 Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) is collection of
devices that are meant to communicate without any infrastructure. In between
nodes routes are maintained in MANETS with certain links. In MANETS routing
protocols play a major role, by efficiently using   energy
the network lifetime increases. once a link failure is detected a new path
discovery process is meant in all single path routing. An alternative is the
multipath routing scheme to maximize the network lifetime. Energy, distances
are the fitness values used in the previous work to find the optimal path in
multipath routing. In this work, it is proposed to use the network resource
bandwidth as a fitness value. Routes are selected based on energy, distance and
also bandwidth. performance of mobile ad hoc networks can be improved by the
proposed  work. The performance will be evaluated
in terms of , end-to-end delay, throughput, packet delivery ratio, routing overhead
ratio and then compare with the results of existing  AOMDV protocol.

1.Introduction :

In recent years there
is advancement in the computer performance and technologies in wireless
communications. Wireless networks need ad hoc networks in which mobile nodes
can communicate over links. In manet, network survivability is must because the
battery capacity of the nodes get exhausted. Thus to prolong the network
lifetime the routing protocol is required to enhance the energy of the node.

                        Multipath routing
protocols maintain routes to flood the packets i.e.,route request  is sent by the source to get information
regarding the paths. Manets can be
categorized into three generations: first, second and third generations. In
1970’s the ad hoc network first generation are called
Packet
Radio Network (PRNET). In   early 1980’s Survivable Adaptive Radio Network
(SURAN) is evolved from PRNET. The function group of manets made the routing
protocols standardized and implemented the devices like PDA’S, palmtops, notebooks.
Some standards like Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11(WLAN’S) are developed to maintain
the manets.

            For several years from 1970’s to 1990’s
there are changes in the generations of manet i.e., finally some standards  are made to maintain the Manet. Energy
efficiency is to be regarded as a factor in manet . Mainly the packets are
transmitted based on the :

1.Distance of the route

2.Residual Energy of
the node.

                     Thus the route that is
efficient and possible in transmitting packets can be identified .Route Request
is sent by the source to find the route that is efficient. All the routes  that are possible  can be find .The information about the nodes
energy level and the links are sent through the Route Reply. Whenever the link
breaks the Route Error is sent .

           When this happens the source sents the
packets through the another route to the destination without any delay. This
can be done with the multipath routing protocol .Thus multipath routing
protocols are preffered to the  single
path routing protocol. In single path routing 
 once the link breaks the packets
cannot be transmitted. Where as in multipath routing other routes can be
preferred to sent the data packets. Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) is the
algorithm from which the fitness function is derived. Fitness Function is
mainly used to find the optimal path. The optimum route is nothing but the
route with:

1.Less distance and

2. consumes less
energy.

              The optimal path minimizes the
energy consumption and maximizes the network lifetime.Thus the proposed
FF-AOMDV performance in maximizing the network lifetime is possible compared to
the AOMDV.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. An overview on
energy efficiency in  manet:

 

2.1 Energy
Efficiency :

 

 In mobile ad hoc networks energy efficiency is
a major issue. Batteries are the one by which mobile nodes are related.  when the batteries get exhausted the nodes
becomes less energy, thus nodes relay on the batteries i.e., the life of a node
depends on batteries. In Mobile ad hoc networks to maximize the life of a
network is the key challenge. Energy efficiency plays a major role in doing
this. Many authors like

 

Rajendra singh
kushwah 1 concentrated on the energy efficiency where the distance, energy
and bandwidth are the fitness values used. Since multipath routing protocol is
used many routes can be used if a link breaks. Route Error gives information
about the link break and this is helpful in sending packets without any error.
So energy can be minimized and network lifetime can be maximized.

 

 

Ankit Dubey et al 2 Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) depends
on the power because each node utilizes limited energy of a battery. A node
sends its packets and other node packets. Energy consumption is a key
challenge. A protocol is proposed which is energy efficient multipath routing (E2MR).
Energy efficiency mainly depends on the residual energy of the node.

 

                     So
the authors clearly concentrated on the energy efficiency, since it is a key
challenge in manets. Network lifetime is also maximized based on the energy
efficiency.

Thus they concentrated mainly on the energy efficiency and
the multipath routing protocols which enhance them. some other authors like:

 

 

Sunsook Jung et al 3 Some techniques are considered to
improve the manet energy efficiency. with limited power supply new application
to maintain the power consumption can be done. By doing this the energy to
route each packet between the nodes can be reduced. In multipath routing
protocols there are other links to transfer the packets if a link breaks. In
this protocol usage, the energy consumption can be reduced.so the energy
efficiency is an important issue in manets.

                                     Thus the
energy efficiency is mainly concentrated in manets since energy plays a major
role in the batteries of nodes.

 

 

2.2. Research on energy efficiency :

 

The research gives an energy efficient
multipath routing protocol called Ad-Hoc On demand Multipath Distance Vector
with the Fitness Function (FF-AOMDV). Here in this optimization: Route distance
and energy level of the route are the one used to select the optimum route, such
that Network lifetime can be maximized.

z.wang ,
J.zhang  et al 4 In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET), Network
operations can be possible by virtual infrastructures. Square based and
hexagon-based are the virtual infrastructures in manets. Network area is
divided into squares and   forwarding is done from one square to other
four. Network area is divided into hexagons and forwarding is six-directional.
Energy can be saved by these two. Energy efficiency is compared here.
Six-directional covers more area compared to the other which makes the consumption
of energy less.

 

 

Hannan Xiao et al 5 Mobile node with
limited battery exists in manets. Energy efficiency can be evaluated using
performance metrics in MANETs, variety of aspects are meant to study the energy
consumption  at  layers like application layer ,mac layer.Thus
performance metrics like packet delivery ratio, throughput are used to evaluate
the energy efficiency.

 

                         

                                      Research
on energy efficiency is concentrated here i.e, authors clearly demonstrate the
evaluation of the energy efficiency. Finally manets need virtual infrastructure
to divide the network area and energy can be saved. By saving the energy in the
mobile nodes the network lifetime can be maximized.

 

 

Prasanta Kumar Manohari et al 6  In Manets there are single path routing
protocols along with the multipath routing protocols. In some environments the
performance of single path routing is low compared to other. Multipath routing
protocols has plenty of routes in which data packets can be sent i.e., if one
route breaks other link is used to send the packet. Finally it is the reason
why multipath routing protocol is preferable compared to single path routing.

 

                              
All the authors mainly tells about the network lifetime and energy
efficiency. For this some performance metrics are used here in manets. The
fitness function has values which act as the parameters in selecting the
routes. Thus the optimal path is find to deliver the packets.

 

 

 

2.3 Theoretical
explanation of energy efficiency:

 

Energy conserved
at each node of the network is calculated. Energy is consumed at each node as
the packets are transmitted from source to the destination. Energy efficiency
can be calculated by the performance metrics :

 

1. Packet
delivery ratio.

2. End –to-end
delay.

3. Throughput.

4. Routing
Overhead Ratio.

 

 

               The experimental results are to
be done based on these parameters .Node speed,

Simulation time
and packet size are the scenarios .And these are tested by the performance
metrics to evaluate the energy efficiency. Proposed FF-AOMDV algorithm makes
the performance better when compared to AOMDV.

 

 

3. Theory to
maximize network lifetime:

 

 To maximize network lifetime the energy
consumption of the nodes should be minimized. Thus the energy consumption can
be minimized by reducing the packet loss.

Packet loss
makes the consumption of energy to be minimized and the network lifetime

maximizes. As
mentioned the results of the FF-AOMDV algorithm is better compared

to the other
i.e., AOMR-LM. Thus the network lifetime can be maximized after the decrease in
the packet loss.

 

 

P. Rajeshkanna  et al 7 concentrated on the energy
efficiency where the nodes rely on the batteries .For each transmission the
data packets are transmitted from source to destination and the energy
consumption is done. To maximize the network lifetime the

Energy
consumption should be reduced.

 

 

      Thus the theory to maximize the network
lifetime is done based on the fitness values

i.e. energy, distance and bandwidth. The optimum
route is the one with the less distance and highest energy level.

 

 

 

3.1 This special
issue:

 

                    Generally in Manets there
are many protocols but  here multipath
routing protocols are used to get the optimal path. Energy consumption is
critical in sending packets to the destination because energy is consumed at
every intermediate node. If a link breaks the energy used will be lost, so
energy consumption is a crucial issue in manet. Here multipath routing protocol
AOMDV with the fitness  function is used.

 

 

Mukesh Kumar et
al 8 In Manets nodes are meant to communicate with other. If the energy of
the nodes is depleted they are unable to communicate. so the nodes battery
should be charged or replaced. By better schemes utilization of the energy in a
node can be reduced. In particular utilization of the energy should be reduced
to maximize the network lifetime. Along with the multipath routing protocols
there are certain schemes to be followed to increase the energy efficiency.

 

 

Syeda Nyma
Ferdous 9 In Manets to design a ad-hoc network energy efficiency is a crucial
factor. Congestion problem in wireless ad hoc networks can be controlled by the
solutions. Drop packet is calculated by making some changes in the RREQ packet.
Network simulator 2.35 is used to simulate the energy based schemes.

 

 

                      They mainly concentrated
on the multipath routing protocol and the schemes to maintain the energy of
mobile nodes.since network lifetime and energy efficiency are crucial in
manets, schemes are proposed to energy consumption.

 

 

Jayashree
Lakshmi10 For a purpose  Mobile Ad-hoc
Networks (MANETs) can be set. To connect with the other networks they use Wi-Fi
or other standards. Bandwidth efficiency is important to maintain as the
applications are improving. Load should be balanced and energy consumption is
important to maintain the bandwidth. Issues in manets are overcomed by the
dynamic channel allocation scheme.

 

 

Wanyi Feng11
et al In Mobile Ad-hoc Networks(MANETs) energy comes under scarce resource. To
reduce the energy consumption Network coding is proposed and to increase its
performance.

 

                           Bandwidth is also
the fitness value along with the energy,distance in manets to find the optimal
path. 

 Research done by many authors based on energy
efficiency in manets:

                                                                                  

                                                                               

                                                                                       

 

Rajendra singh                                                    
Energy Efficiency   is
concentrated to

 

Ankit Dubey                                                         maximize the
network lifetime.

 

Sunsook Jung

 

 

 

Z.wang                                                              Research
on energy efficiency of

Hannan Xiao                                                             
Manets.

Prasanta Kumar Manohari

 

 

Mukesh kumar                                                         
Routing schemes implemented

Syeda Nyma Ferdous                                             to
enhance the energy consumption

Jayashree Lakshmi

 

                                     Like this
many authors done research on energy efficiency of manets. Multipath routing schemes
are implemented to maximize the network lifetime. Here the multipath routing
protocol AOMDV with fitness function is used. Main aim is to get the optimal
path between the nodes. Many researches have been made for years from 1970’s to
1990’s in this energy efficiency of manets. Plenty of articles are done based
on this energy consumption to reduce the usage of energy in nodes.

 

 

 

4.Conclusion:

                     

 

 

 

 

References:

1.