French and Indian War: A War to RememberHarsh Chheda Period 4 AP US History Research Paper January 16, 2018 The French and Indian War: A War to RememberThe French and Indian War, also known as the Seven Years War, was a major event that signified the struggle between Britain and France. Both countries strived to expand their nation throughout America; however, as the French expansion spread, conflict arose within the colonies claimed by Britain. The name “French and Indian” did not imply a war between the Native Americans and the French, but rather an alliance between them against the British colonies. The unable border between the two nations’ settlements in America near the Ohio River Valley instituted constant conflict in this region. In addition, the constant battle for power and wealth through the control of land in America alluded to conflict and fighting. The French and Indian War removed the French from North America leaving a vast interior of land for Americans to colonize. Gradually, this war not only gave much power to the English government, but also created tension between the colonies and Britain. The French and Indian War had numerous effects regarding British relations and the development of the colonies through political, economic, and social standpoints. Economically, the British plunged into tremendous debt due to the war and they needed to tax the colonies to pay off that debt, and therefore they issued a series of acts and taxes to do so. On a social standpoint, the lack of colonial representation in Parliament created tensions between the colonists and King George III as they felt as though they were treated like second-class citizens. Politically, the British government established new boundaries and terms of ownership regarding land in America. Many historians may claim that the French and Indian War simply expanded British power in the New World; however, the removal of the French and acquired power by the British created tension that would eventually lead to the American Revolution. Tension between the French and British in North America dated back to the early 1600s as French and British colonists engaged in warfare due to land disputes. As time went on, these disputes became more and more severe, eventually leading to the French and Indian War. The “King William’s War” in the late 1600’s was the first major altercation between the British and the French and Indians. This dispute between both nations revolved around control of fur trade and religious differences; however the war began due to King William’s opposal of the right for people to change sovereigns. The war began with several Indian raids and lasted for several years; although the outcome deemed for future conflict. After the war, James the Pretender (son of King William) was appointed King of Britain and King Louis of France appointed his son as King of Spain. In doing so, the French increase their power of the dynasties of Europe, and this notion angered the British. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended “King George’s War”, which was “an Austrian-Prussian battle over the succession rights of Silesia” (French and Indian War). However, both the British and French played major roles as they supported opposing sides of the war as Bavaria was supported by the French and England was backing Austria. The Treaty was faulty in that it left both sides unsatisfied with the outcome. Basically, control of land would go back to normal; therefore leaving the clashing views between nations the same. Here, the animosity between the French and Britain remained unresolved, alluding to future disputes between the two nations. A significant factor leading to the French and Indian War included a series of incidents in the upper Ohio River valley, which the French and British governments both claimed as their territory. Throughout several areas of the Ohio River Valley, both nations constructed forts in attempt to capture each others’ forts. The Natives in the valley were caught between the disputes and though the Iroquois Confederacy was claimed by Britain, many native groups sided with the French, as they were the “lesser of two evils” (U.S. Department of State). As General George Washington led several raids on “invading” French forts, the loss of Fort Duquesne called for the emergence of a much larger war. The conflict between the French and the British foreshadowed the need for a war; however the consequences after the war will forever change the colonies and British rule. The French and Indian War hurt the British economy greatly due to the debt created. The Crown, seeking sources of revenue to pay off the debt, chose to impose new taxes on its colonies. These taxes were met with increasingly stiff resistance, until troops were called in to ensure that representatives of the Crown could safely perform their duties of collecting taxes. Beginning around 1651 and expanding to 1774, several Acts imposed against the colonist created tension between them and the British. Starting from the Navigation Acts, which governed commerce between Britain and its colonies to the Intolerable Acts, the colonists were taxed on several important components of daily life. Other significant taxes included the Stamp Act, which intended to raise revenue by requiring the purchase of stamps to be placed on public documents and the Townshend Act that imposed import duties on 72 items including paint, tea, glass and paper. Additionally, the Tea Act granted the East India Company exclusive license to import and distribute tea to the American colonies, and this hurt independent shippers, smugglers and local shopkeepers. The Acts formed tension between the colonies and the British due to the extended power of the British rule obtained after the French and Indian War. Over the years, dissatisfaction over the high taxes would steadily rise among the colonists until eventually culminating in the American Revolutionary War.The French and Indian War caused much social unrest within the colonies and the British; however much of the trouble in society tied in with the economical conflict of taxation without representation. As the British rule created a Parliament that would serve as an imperial body to represent and exercise the same authority over the colonies as over the homeland. However; they failed to realize that the elected officials in the Parliament did not represent the colonies well, rather focused on British needs. Moreover, the colonists argued that “the English Parliament had no more right to pass laws for the colonies than any colonial legislature had the right to pass laws for England” (Taxation without Representation). The unjust treatment in the Parliament affected colonial society, as they began to form together and see the British rule as a common enemy. One major unification of the colonies was through rebellions against the Crown. Shortly after the idea of taxation without representation was introduced the Sons of Liberty organized a rebellion against the Tea Act. These colonist, dressed a Mohawks, dumped several crates of tea in the Boston harbor. Here, the colonist came together to fight against the Tea Act imposed upon them, causing the British to lose several thousand dollars. Upon establishing the Proclamation Line, colonists were forced to fight against westward Native tribes. The Ottawa leader, Pontiac, encouraged Ohio Country tribes to unite and to rise up against the British. The violent confrontation between the Natives and the colonists only worsened tensions between the colonists and the British. The British preferred to tamp down hostilities and maintain peace along the frontier, but settlers pushed for war and expansion. Pontiac’s War not only exacerbated Britain’s relationship with American colonists but also bound the colonists together in a shared traumatic experience, helping to lay the foundation for future cooperation against the British. As a result of the economical conflicts of the French and Indian War, social unrest became dominant within the colonies against the British. The direct consequence of the French and Indian War regarding the land gained from the French compares to the Westward Expansion. The Louisiana Purchase cost the U.S. $15 million and included the land west of the Mississippi. This allowed the U.S. to double in size and therefore gain power and resources. Jefferson believed that a republic depended on an independent, virtuous citizenry for its survival, and that independence and virtue went hand in hand with land ownership. This was similar to the French and Indian War, as the land gained upon the agreement in the Treaty of Paris was sought to be for the expansion of the British Empire. In addition to this, the Indian Removal Act, enforced by President Jackson, authorized the president to grant unsettled lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders. Here, Native Indians were forced to leave their home land due to the newly acquired territory. Similarly, the land obtained from France was home to several Indian tribes and English colonist faced several alterations against the natives to acquire the land. For example, in Pontiac’s Rebellion, the colonies fought against the Native Americans to obtain land throughout the Ohio county. Overall, one major consequence of the French and Indian War (land obtained from the French) can be compared to the Westward Expansion. The French and Indian had a significant impact on the relations and expansion of the colonies and the British Empire. Several economic and social factors played a major role in influencing the Revolutionary War. The French and Indian War made a significant impact in American history, the the power and land obtained by Britain instituted conflict within American. As economical debt grew and the British Rule began to impose unjust acts, tensions between the colonies and Britain escalated. The colonies not only realized the abuse of power, but also that they could unite against the British. The idea of unity allowed the colonist to join together in a war for independence: the Revolutionary War. Historians may claim that the French and Indian War simply expanded British power in the New World; however, the removal of the French and acquired power by the British created tension with the colonists, eventually diminishing the British jurisdiction and empire in America.