Motivation plays a significant role in a student’s learning and development. It is part of teachers’ pedagogy to develop in students the desire for new knowledge and understandings. All students are unique; educators, through implementing a variety of motivational techniques, can have considerable influence on students’ participation and self-expression. Individual teachers have the capability of making learning empowering, thus allowing the energy of the classroom to be filled with excitement and anticipation (Valerio, 2012).
Gasco et al. (2014) affirmed that motivation plays a crucial role in learning for the reason that it greatly explains student’s performance. Thus, motivation is a fundamental recipe for academic and performance success. This study suggests that motivational strategies are very essential in accumulating students’ performance for it determines the extent to which students will consider, value, put in effort, and show interest in the task. In addition, teacher’s motivational strategies have relation to the steps taken by students to enhance their performance in school.
Motivation is the “process whereby goal directed activity is instigated and sustained” (Schunk and Meece, 2002), can take either intrinsic or extrinsic forms. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside the individual, for example, the offering of incentives for successful task performance such as stickers or point systems (Sternberg and Williams, 2002). Intrinsic motivation refers to engaging in an activity for its own sake, for the enjoyment, challenge, interest or natural fulfillment of curiosity (Barry and King, 2000).
Extrinsic Motivational Strategies
Lepper (2005) stated that extrinsic motivation needs to be structured to enhance intrinsic motivation, through rewarding students for the seeking of new challenges, demonstrating curiosity in learning experiences or completing tasks for the pleasure of new learning.
According to Warmuth (2014), extrinsic motivation refers to a desire to pursue a subject for reasons outside of the individual, such as rewards, grades, parental or instructor approval, etc. These individuals are motivated to learn a subject not because they want to learn it, but because learning the material will get them good grades, parental praise, or because jobs in that field pay well; all of which are external rewards.
Extrinsically motivated actions are characterized by pressure and tension, and are believed to result in low self-esteem and anxiety (Deci and Ryan, 1985). Thus, extrinsic motivators include parental expectations, expectations of other trusted role models, earning potential of a course of study, and grades.
Clemens (2007) stated that reward system in the classroom is beneficial to both parties – the teacher and the student. This study suggests that the teacher must provide increased doses of positive attention to his or her students at times to attain the desired goal of making students feel motivated.
Researchers often find a correlation between motivation to learn and student achievement (Walberg, 1993). In this generation, many students often loss or lack the motivation to excel and participate in school. Low motivation is characterized by decrease in levels of effort, inattention, and poor task persistence. Consequently, teachers routinely implement strategies designed to enhance student motivation to learn and participate in class such as through giving recognition, rewards, etc.
Intrinsic Motivational Strategies
Intrinsic motivation can be increased through engaging learning experiences. Teachers need to deliver content in a way that grabs the attention of their students ? for example, teachers can utilize members of the school community, have lessons outside of the classroom or have students dress up as certain characters. Engaging students can assist in the struggle against loss of motivation, dislike of subjects and disruption of classroom management (Handley, 2010).
A teacher’s passion and enthusiasm for learning is also apparent through the planning and preparation time put into lessons. Teachers who plan lessons catering to students’ strengths, prior knowledge and how learners learn best demonstrate their own motivation, by example, to enhance student experiences (Palmer, 2007). Having such conversations can add intrinsic value to the topic before the content has even been presented. Teachers need to ‘move’ their students to motivate curiosities and develop lifelong learners.
Valerio (2012) said in his study that teachers are role models for students; a teacher who exhibits their own passion and enthusiasm for learning will transfer these attributes to the classroom, developing intrinsic students. Motivating students into learning for the desire of learning can open up a world of possibilities. Intrinsic motivation is a fundamental element in students’ learning, with teachers having the influence to implement learning experiences that allow students to see knowledge as worthwhile and take ownership over their learning.
According to Phil Schlecty (1994), students who understand the lesson tend to be more engaged and show different characteristics such as they are attracted to do work, persist in the work despite challenges and obstacles, and take visible delight in accomplishing their work. In developing students’ understanding to learn important concepts, teacher may use a variety of teaching strategies that would work best for her or his students.
It is necessary for teachers to work from students’ strengths and interests by finding out why students are in their class and what are their expectations. Therefore it is important to take into consideration students’ needs and interests so as to focus instruction that is applicable to different groups of students with different levels (Brock, 1976). Teachers must have passion for learning and teaching as well as to understand needs and interests of the students. The constant change drives teachers for a need to be technology savvies, in order to meet new global emerging demands.
According to Wlodkowski and Ginsberg (1995), the key to success in enhancing student’s performance is helping students relate lesson content to their own backgrounds which would include students’ prior knowledge in understanding new concepts in order so that students will have the reason to be interested by the subject. Consequently, the nature of motivation and learning strategy use is vital to improving student learning outcomes.
Furthermore, research made by Lucas (1990), Weinert and Kluwe (1987) show that several styles could be employed by the teachers to encourage students to become self-motivated independent learners. Some aspects in the teaching situation were identified. It was suggested that teachers must give frequent positive feedback that supports students’ beliefs that they can do well; ensure opportunities for students’ success by assigning tasks that are either too easy nor too difficult; help students find personal meaning and value in the material; and help students feel that they are valued members of a learning community.
Lumsden (1994) stated that student motivation naturally has to do with students’ desire to participate in the learning process. This idea suggests that t is not merely about student’s desire but also concerns their reasons and goals that their involvement or non involvement underlie in any academic activities or performances. Moreover, this simply expands the idea that the root of students’ motivation may differ on how their school environment works.
Humans are highly social beings, positive teacher attention can be a very powerful motivator for students (Kazdin, 1989). Teachers’ role is crucial in carrying out students’ desire and interest in school. The teacher is capable of using praise statements at a rate sufficient to motivate and guide the student toward the behavioral goal.
Teachers play significant roles to help learners establish self-confidence and achieve successes that can crucially influence motivation (Fives and Manning, 2005). The students’ performance reflect on how the teachers carry out his or her subject and how effective their strategies for the discussion that the class would receive from their mentor. By the performance of students, teachers will be evaluated weather their strategies are working according to their plan or goal. Moreover, the role of the teacher does not only stop in being an educator that gives knowledge to the students but also to give a boost in confidence and motivation to study and learn to the students that they are oblige to teach.
A research study by (Cheng and Dornyei, 2007) indicates that no matter the culture, teachers consider appropriate behavior on their part to be a crucial factor when motivating students. It is an accepted fact that teachers should present positive vibe in order to establish positive relationship with the students. This study also suggests that teachers should also recognize and call out the students who have done well in class, it will surely boost the student’s self-confidence and give them a higher positive feeling about the teacher as well as the subject itself. A study by (Schunk and Cox, 1986) corroborates with this study by conveying that providing students with feedback concerning efforts has been found to increase intrinsic motivation by helping students attribute successful outcomes to their own efforts, which was confirmed by the participating teachers’ actions.
Ames and Archer (1988) claimed in their study that it is the students’ goals to have the initiative to motivate their selves in order to have good grades and also don’t have any failures to any of the projects. The performance of the students is also dependent on the strategies that the teachers’ have. The teachers use different kinds of motivations to seek positive reactions from their students. They use energizers and more keening activities to catch the attention that they want from the students, in a way that students can also get some learning and at the same time enjoy the practices of motivational strategies that teachers used.
Highly motivated students also tend to be more satisfied with their education (Jones, 2008; Roebkin, 2007). In this research said that the students who are really highly motivated are the ones who will be satisfied in their education. The students will have high grades, if they motivate themselves to study more.