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(15)                             Misbah Rafique.(31)Class:                        Bs philosophy                        (Semester 3)Course outline:                     Philosophy of  Education.Instructor:                  Sir Abu Bakar.Topic of assignment:               Educational psychology.Submitted date:                    30-1-2018In the introduction of educational psychology, we take an overview of educational psychology and its applications in teaching. We first define its scope , its procedure and then its content.Firstly, what is educational psychology??According to B. F. Skinner, “It is the branch of psychology which deals with teaching and learning”.According to Guy Lefrancois, author of psychology for teaching (2011), “Educational psychology is the branch of psychology that studies human behavior in educational settings”.Educational psychology is one of the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes such as cognitive development, individual differences in intelligence, motivation, self-concept, self-regulation and their role in learning. The element of educational psychology are the learner, the teacher, the learning experiences, the teaching experiences and the learning environment. Actually educational psychology studies the behavior and the experiences of the learner in response to the learning environment. However, the discipline employs scientific methods and follows a scientific approach in its study of the learner’s behavior through the responses in the learning environment. Moreover, it tries to study the subject by controlling external factors and achieves a fair deal of success in predicting behavior in general sense. Owing to these qualities, educational psychology is the scientific study.Educational psychology is a scientific study that addresses two basic questions; (1) why do some individual learn more than others? (2) what can be done to improve that learning?  Secondly, what is the scope of educational psychology??The scope of educational psychology is limited to its five elements of interest and their mutual interrelationships. The teacher is the pivot of the subject and the act of learning should be based on the psychological factors such as inner abilities, individual differences and development of the learner. We can estimate the scope of educational psychology by following factors;Human behaviorGrowth and developmentThe learnerThe learning experiencesLearning processLearning situation or environmentIt studies human behavior in context of education and also the principles of growth and development. The subject matter of educational psychology is knitted around the learner. Educational psychology helps in deciding what learning experiences are to be provided. After knowing that what experiences are to be provided then it moves learner on the laws, principles and theories of learning. Environment factors and learning situation is the midway between learner and teacher.Thirdly, what is the purpose of educational psychology??The main purpose of the educational psychology is the “establishment and maintenance of effective human performance”. The purpose of the educational psychology is to promote the development of the personality, talents, mental and physical abilities of children through collaborative work with individuals, families, schools, educational managers, and other agencies. Some educational purposes are following;The rights and opinions of children and young people within the framework of the UN convention on the Rights of the Child.Solution oriented and positive problem solving approaches at all levels of our work.Integrity, honesty and impartiality.Respect for all individuals, including their right to confidentiality.Equality of access to services on the basis of need, irrespective of gender, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, age, social status or wealth.Consultation and openness.High professional standards and the continuing development of skills.Practice and provision based upon sound evidence.Least intrusive but effective intervention.Collaborative and supportive work with parents, schools and other agencies.Creativity, innovation and intellectual rigors.Fourthly, Needs of educational psychology??To know the learner.To know once own self as a teacher.To suggest effective techniques of teaching and learning experiences.To create a suitable teaching environment.To provide guidance.To maintain discipline.To make evaluation and assessment.To solve classroom problems.Finally, the content of educational psychology. What is teaching??How do keeping school and teaching differ..?? Are teachers born or made..?? what is the role of psychology in the teaching..?? what is the role of a teacher in the life of learner..??Teaching may be poor or good, but  nevertheless and performs in the series of operations whose purpose is to transmit this subject matter to student. A Teacher is that person who do something to someone. Much of what passes for teaching actually is not. It is true that most students passed most of there examinations. They do manage to move from grade level to grade level and eventually receive diplomas. In most schools subjects most students learn to repeat a considerable amount of information factual or otherwise. But the question remains what have they learned which remain a permanent part of them and be used in there life. Perhaps there is a rather fundamental difference between teaching and merely keeping school. There are many teacher which are more effective in our life than others. Some teachers made us to think and solve our problem on our own efforts. Some said Teaching  is a learned activity and on the other hand teachers believe that they have a gift drives them. Here we fall in the debate of nature vs. nurture. If we talk about a good teacher then that teacher which are calling good teacher by us will must have some skills such as techer must b organizational, social, innovative, open for question and know about the modern  technology, teacher must be the example of tolerance, come to class with the full preparation, and must be a story teller. The role of psychology in the teaching is very important.To know learner.Early identification and intervention.Guidance and counseling to the student as well as parents.When to teach, how to teach and what to teach the child.Good observation of the children.Develop social skills.The effect of body language on the children.Learning environment.Improve communication skills.Vocabulary and word comprehension.The role of teacher have a great influence in the life of the  learner.  Teacher is a model for the learner. A learner try to follow his teacher in the every field of his life. Jesus , Buddha and Muhammad were such examples. One of the other point is that the teacher must respect the learner and must be a friend and guide to him. A teacher is not a dictator or a commander but a friend, guide and a working partner. He also helps his student to aviod mistake. He has to know about the psychology of child.What should be the method of teaching..??Teaching method is a set of didactic procedure that lead the learning. In simple words “Teaching method” is that method which use to teach something to someone. Some important method of teaching are following.Lecture method.Project method.Dialectical or Socratic method.Discussion method.Unit method.Lecture method is that method in which teacher is able to develop a point clearly, logically and systematically. So that the pupil come to understand the interrelation of the parts of the topic being presented.Project method was popularized bt William H. Kilpatrick in the 1920’s, in which pupils singly and jointly initiate a learning task , do it by themselves and with the help of teacher. A project is an individualized work assignment. Although all members of the class may be given the same general kind of task, each student is free to arrange variations. In this method students works on an individualized schedule. Projects involve physical activity and almost always result in some kind of physical product.Unit method, in its self general sense, is a collection of subject matter which is unified by a single theme. Unit method may be selected or designed to fit a particular situation. Educators have devised a great variety of unit plans, the nature of which depends largely on how the educator defines the learning process and what he sees as the goal of education. Dialectical or Socratic method is the method of question answer in which the mind of child is exercised. Teacher question the student when student answer the question then teacher repose with another question which prompted him to think more deeply for answer the question.Discussion method is a method other than the dialectic or Socratic method. It is the method of exchanging the ideas among a teacher and students or among the students for the purpose of furthering students thinking, learning, or problem solving. Teaching method should be according to the capability of children. Today’s students have a quick changing future to demand individual skills, compatibility, right questions, and the ability to manage programs and people. Teacher have a unique role, and in many ways their students become collaborators and trainers rather than trainers, helping their students pursue their challenging plans.What is child psychology..??Psychology is the science that deals with how others feel, think and do. While child psychology is the special branch for child that deals with mental power or interactions between the conscious and sub conscious elements in a child. Importance of child psychology is following.A child behavior is shaped by his or her environment. As a parents or caregiver, it is important to understand the reason behind a child’s behavior .To understand the child better.To know the problem of psychological origin.To deliver mental services in meaning and effective manner.To establish effective communication with child and the parents.To gain confidence of the child and of the parents.To teach the child and the parent.To have better treatment planning and interaction with other discipline.To produce comfortable environment for the dental tem to work on the patient.Need of child psychology in education..??Child is immature one. His mind like his body is immature and has to be developed. Teacher must be known about the child psychology for the betterment and development of the child. As child psychology studies the various aspects of a human’s development throughout childhood. Child psychology is the specific branch of development psychology dealing not only with physical development but also with their mental, emotional. And social development, also influences that affect a child’s growth involve much more than the internal forces that arise from within an individual. Environmental factors, such as social relationships and culture in which a child lives, also play an important role. A comprehensive analysis of a child’s development takes into account many different major context:The social background.The cultural background.The socioeconomic background.Actually child psychology seeks to answer the following questions.What makes one child a leader in her group while the other is timid and stays close to the teacher all the time..?What, no average, should be expected from a child at different ages..??Is there a pattern in development by which one can expect a three year old to behave differently from five year old..??What will be your reaction when a punctual student comes late in the class..??These some question regarding the child psychology, we will able to answer these questions after the study of child psychology. Motivation is the huge key in the education, if the teacher motivate the student there will more chances of the success. When  a student motivated he learn better. Motivation is one thing that brings student to carry out and achieves what we propose and play a great role in learning.Theories of learning..??Classical conditioning: Pavlov demonstrated this phenomenon by presenting a dog with meat while ringing the bell. He repeated this again and again very soon dog gad classical conditioning and started salivation on the ring of the bell. Even if the meat was not presented.Operant conditioning: B .F. Skinner gave operant conditioning, this is the type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences key concept in operant conditioning are positive reinforcement , negative reinforcement , positive punishment and negative punishment.Social learning theory: According to Albert Bandura, a major part of human learning consist of observational learning, which is learning by watching another model or person. It is also called Vicarious learning. There are 4 element of vicarious learning.1: Attention       2: Memory       3: Imitation     4: MotivationHierarchy of needs: According to the hierarchy of needs education by Maslow. There are 5 stages.Law of Effect: Edward Thorndike learning in animals using a puzzle box for this purpose. According to his Law of effect, any behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated and any behavior that is followed by negative consequences’ is likely to be stopped. Cognitive theory: jean piaget gave the cognitive development theory. In which he define the 4 stages of development Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational. Details are in following table.Conculsion: As educational psychology is the scientific study of human learning, the knowledge and proper application of the subject of educational psychology is vital in the professional growth of the a teacher and that is why is a major subject in a teacher training course.