Research  Paper Summary

COURSE TITLE : Data Communication

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COURSE CODE    :   CSE-2207

Topic:   cyber crime

SUBMITED TO :

Tania Islam
Lecturer
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
University of Barisal, Barisal, Bangladesh.

SUBMITED BY: 

                   Hridoy Roy                                Nadira Aktar

                   Roll No:16CSE-014                   Roll No: 16CSE-017

                   Session:2015-16                                 Session:2015-16

                  Department
of Computer science and Engineering .

                   University of Barisal.

 

Introduction :

Crime and criminality have been paired with man since his flop.
Crime is the direct opposite of development. Crime interrupts the development
of a country. It leaves a negative social and economic Impact. It is very hard
to classify crimes in general into distinct groups. But most common crime in
today’s life is cybercrime. Cybercrime is judged as crimes committed on the
internet using the computer as either a tool or a targeted victim. All
cybercrimes involve both the computer and the person behind it as victims. The
term ‘cyber crime’ is a misnomer. The thought of cyber crime is not completely
different from the idea of conventional crime. Both include conduct of
omission, which break the rules of law. Before evaluating the concept of cyber
crime it is badly needed to have concept of conventional crime. 1

 

 

Cyber Crime :

 

Cyber-crime is
the latest and perhaps the most talked problem in the cyber world. A
generalized definition of cyber crime may be an illegal acts wherein the computer
is either a tool or target or both. A cyber attack is
an attack initiated from a computer against a website, computer system or
individual computer. The computer may be used as a tool in the following
kinds of activity financial crimes, sale of illegal articles, pornography, cyber
defamation, cyber stalking. The computer may however be target for unlawful
acts in the following cases  unauthorized
access to  computer system/ computer
networks, theft of information contained in the electronic form, email bombing,
data loot, logic bombs, internet time thefts, web jacking, theft of computer
system, physically damaging the computer system.1

Cyber-crime
and cyber security are issues that can hardly be separated in an interconnected
environment. Cyber security plays an important role in the ongoing development
of information technology. The legal, technical and institutional challenges
posed by the issue of cyber security are global and far-reaching, and can only
be addressed through a coherent strategy taking into account the role of different
stakeholders and existing initiatives, within a framework of international
cooperation. 4

 

 

 

Tool, Target and
Criminals of Cyber Crime :

 

      The cyber criminals may be categorized in
the following category.

 

·        
Children and adolescents between the age group of 10
– 18 years involves with cyber crime due to the inquisitiveness to know and
explore the things.

·        
Organized hackers are mostly
emboidied together to fulfill certain objective.

·        
Professional hacker’s work is motivated by the colour
of money. These are mostly employed to hack the site to get valuable
information.

·        
Discontented employees normally hack
the system of their employee due to dissatisfaction with their employer.

It
is known that any mental or physical torture occurred via internet considered
as cyber crime, so it is clear that a tool that directly or indirectly involve
with crime is considered as a crime tool. It may be mobile phone or any device.
But mostly these criminals uses computer as a crime tool. And maximum time
computer uses as a target also.

 

 

Reasons
for Cyber Crime :

 

“The Concept of Law” has said ‘human are
in risk so rule of law is required to protect them’. Applying this to the
cyberspace we may say that computers are vulnerable so rule of law is required
to protect cyber crime. The reasons for the vulnerability of computers may be
said to be:

 

·        
Capacity to store data in comparatively small space: The computer
has unique characteristic of storing data in a very small space. This affords
to remove or derive information either through physical or virtual medium makes
it much easier.

 

·        
Easy to access: The problem encountered in guarding a computer
system from unrecognized access is that there is every possibility of breach
not due to human error but

due to the complex technology. By
secretly implanted logic bomb, key loggers that can steal access codes, advanced
voice recorders; retina imagers etc. that can fool biometric systems and bypass
firewalls can be utilized to get past many a security system.

 

·        
Complex: The computers work on operating systems
and these operating systems in turn are composed of millions of codes. Human
mind is fallible and it is not possible that there might not be a lapse at any
stage. The cyber criminals take advantage of these lacunas and penetrate into
the computer system.

 

·        
Negligence: Negligence is very closely connected
with human conduct. It is therefore very probable that while protecting the
computer system there might be any negligence, which in turn provides a cyber
criminal to gain access and control over the computer system.

 

·        
Loss of evidence: Loss of evidence is a very common
& obvious problem as all the data are routinely destroyed. Further
collection of data outside the territorial extent

also
paralyses this system of crime investigation.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12

           

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

Blastings due to Cyber
Crime :

 

·        
Unauthorized access to computer systems or Hacking:
This
kind of crime is   known as hacking.
Today’s Criminals are going to access other’s computer to take data or whatever
he needed.

 

·        
Theft of information contained in electronic form: Information
stored in computer hard disks, removable storage media and theft may be either
by appropriating the data physically or by tampering them through the virtual
medium.

 

·        
Email bombing: This kind of activity refers to
sending large numbers of mail to the victim. By this when a valuable e-mail
need to find the mail  servers my be
ultimately crashed.

 

·        
Data diddling: This kind of an attack involves altering
raw data just before a computer processes it and then changing it back after
the processing is completed.

 

·        
Salami attacks: This kind of crime is normally purpose
of committing financial crimes. An important feature of this type of crime is
that the alteration is so small that it would normally go unnoticed. For
example only 10 cents are deducted from each account and store it in a
particular account.

 

·        
Denial of Service attack: The computer of
the victim which cause it to Crash by this type of crime. Distributed Denial of
Service attack is also a type of denial of service attack.

 

·        
Virus attacks: It 
can be defined as viruses are programs that fix themselves to a computer
or a file and then move themselves to other files and to other computers on a network.
They usually affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting it.
For today’s life it is very common and well-known problem.

 

·        
Logic bombs: These are event dependent programs. This
implies that these programs are created to do something only when a certain
event occurs even some viruses may be termed logic bombs.

 

·        
Trojan attacks: This means an unauthorized programme,
which passively gains control over another’s system by representing itself as
an authorised programme.

 

·        
Internet time thefts: Normally in these kinds of
thefts the Internet surfing hours of the victim are used up by another person.
This is done by gaining access to the login ID and

·        
the
password. It is another well-known and familiar crime.

 

·        
Web jacking: This term is derived from the term hi
jacking. In these kinds of offences the hacker gains access and control over
the web site of another. He may even mutilate or changethe information on the
site. This may be done for fulfilling political objectives or for money.
Recently the site of Ministry of Information Technology  was hacked by the Pakistani hackers.1

 

 

            Actions
to prevent or reduce the risk of cyber attacks :

·        
Save  the company’s database on a different web
server .

·        
Applying the latest security
patches.

·        
Protecting all passwords.

·        
Using read-only views of
documents and materials when possible.

·        
Maintaining strict input
validation.

·        
Developing network security
architecture.

·        
Monitoring activities and
procedures of third-party contractors with access to the computer system

·        
Performing network scans to
assess activity on the network.

·        
Adopt
a Cyber Incident Response Plan

·        
Adopt
Procedures to Preserve Evidence

·        
The board of directors, CEO, CFO and other senior management must
support the CCO in preventing cyber attacks. The CCO should create and maintain
relationships with federal, state and local law enforcement .

·        
Every company should develop
a written cyber incident response plan) that identifies cyber attack scenarios contains

·        
Response team., Reporting, Initial
response, Investigation, Recovery and follow-up, Public relations,Law
enforcement.

·        
Develop the cyber incident
response plan.

·        
Identify and classify cyber
attack scenarios.

·        
Determine the tools and
technology used to detect and prevent attacks.

·        
Secure the company’s
computer network.

·        
Develop a checklist for
handling initial investigations of cyber attacks.

·        
Conduct any investigations
within the determined scope.

·        
Should
take Initial response to a cyber attack

·        
Investigating
a cyber attack

·        
Public
announcements and public relations after a cyber attack

·        
Law
enforcement investigations of cyber attacks

·        
Law
Enforcement Agencies that Investigate Internet Crime

·        
Identifying
the hackers   37

             Conclusion :

 

The cyber crime as a whole
refers to Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of
individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the
victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly,
using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails,
notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS). A computer can be a
source of evidence. Even when a computer is not directly used for criminal
purposes, may contain records of value to criminal investigators. so the
network must be secure as no one can access the information of the computer.
4

 

 

 

 

References:

1.   
Cyber Crime in the Society: Problems and Preventions
by Kamini Dashora, PhD, Principal, P.P. Patel College of Social
Sciences, (Affiliated Sardar Patel University, Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India)

 

2.    Organizations and Cyber crime: An Analysis of the Nature of Groups
engaged in Cyber Crime by Roderic Broadhurst, Peter Grabosky, Mamoun Alazab
& Steve Chon ANU
Cybercrime Observatory, Australian National University, Australia

 

3.    Cybercrime and the Victimization of women: Laws,Rights and Regulations by
Halder D., Jaishankar K.

 

4.    Cyber crime and
security by Shilpa Yadav,
Tanu Shree

 

5.   
Crime Data Mining: An Overview and Case Studies by Hsinchun Chen, Wingyan Chung, Yi Qin, Michael Chau,
Jennifer Jie Xu, Gang Wang, Rong Zheng.

 

6.    Sex, Lies and Cybercrime Surveys by Dinei Florencio and
Cormac Herley

 

7.   
 Cyber
Attacks: Prevention and Proactive Responses by
Vince Farhat, Bridget McCarthy and
Richard Raysman,