Sigmund Freud: Founding Father of
Psychoanalysis

Kaylee R. McCracken

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Jenks High School

Abstract

Sigmund Freud is one of the founding fathers of
psychology, specifically psychoanalysis. 
Psychoanalysis is a clinical method for helping create the dialogue
between a patient and the psychoanalyst.  Freud has changed the way we think of human
behavior and the mind.  Freud came up
with three main theories, the Id, Ego and Superego.

Sigmund Freud: Founding Father of
Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud was born on May 6th, 1856 and died September 23rd,
1939.  Freud is the founder of
psychoanalysis.  Psychoanalysis focuses
on the interactions of unconscious and conscious components occurring in the
mind, as well as bringing repressed fears into the conscious mind by free
association and dream interpretation.  Freud
did not come up with the terms, unconscious, conscious, and conscience but he
did make them popular concepts in the field of psychology.  The id, ego, and superego are three of the
main theories Freud founded.  

The Three Theories

Freud developed his own framework to determine what drives
human behavior.  Freud recognized individuals
are motivated by needs and wants.  Within
Freud’s framework, some behavior is conscious choices, while other behaviors
are not.  Freud developed a
classification system and behavior models to support his theories he called the
id, ego and superego.

Id

 “According to Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic
theory of personality, the id is the personality component made up of
unconscious psychic energy that works to satisfy basic urges, needs, and
desires.  It operates based on the
pleasure principle, which demands immediate gratification of needs.  The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and
needs.  If these needs are not satisfied
immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension.  For example, an increase in hunger or thirst
should produce an immediate attempt to eat or drink” says Kendra Cherry.

Ego

The ego mediates the unrealistic id and the real
world.  The ego looks for pleasure, similar
to id but differs in a way that the ego uses a realistic strategy when trying
to have pleasure.  The ego has no right
or wrongs, it is based on whether or not something is satisfying and meets the
needs of something without causing harm to itself.  The ego mostly points the id in the right
direction, rather than doing anything else.  If the ego does not use the reality concept
correctly, it is likely anxiety will occur and the unconscious defense mechanism
is used to make the individual feel better.

Superego

The superego has to do with the morals
and values of society that are usually learned from parents and other people.  Superego develops from the ages of 3 to 5.  The superego controls urges that are brought
upon by the Id, mostly urges that society is against, like aggression.  “It also has the function
of persuading the ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than simply realistic
ones and to strive for perfection” says Saul McLeod.  The superego has two different networks.  One is the conscience and makes a person feel
guilt, and the other is the ideal self, which is how a person wants to be, act,
and behave.

Impact

Sigmund Freud has been influential
by developing theories of the human mind and behavior.  Freud’s theory of id elaborated the beginning
of psychoanalysis.  He stretched the
importance of the unconscious mind and how the unconscious mind controls more
of our actions than we ever thought.  Freud’s
theories are still important today.  According
to George Dvorsky “When
it comes to his influence on psychology, psychoanalysis, and our theories of
mind, he’s often credited for kindling a revolution; with Freud, it’s kind of a
before-and-after thing”. A lot of work and research today is still based on the
findings and theories from Freud’s original work.

References
Freud’s Theory of the Id, Ego, and
Superego. (2015). Retrieved December 17, 2017, from https://www.commonlit.org/texts/freud-s-theory-of-the-id-ego-and-superego
McLeod, S. (1970,
January 01). Id, Ego and Superego. Retrieved December 17, 2017, from https://www.simplypsychology.org/psyche.html
Cherry | Reviewed by
Steven Gans, MD, K. (2017, August 23). Freud and the Id, Ego, and Superego.
Retrieved December 17, 2017, from https://www.verywell.com/the-id-ego-and-superego-2795951
Sigmund Freud. (2017,
December 04). Retrieved December 17, 2017, from https://www.biography.com/people/sigmund-freud-9302400
(n.d.). Retrieved
December 17, 2017, from http://www.intelltheory.com/wundt.shtml
Dvorsky, G. (2013,
August 07). Why Freud Still Matters, When He Was Wrong About Almost
Everything. Retrieved December 17, 2017, from https://io9.gizmodo.com/why-freud-still-matters-when-he-was-wrong-about-almost-1055800