Sydney KashmanCape Coral High SchoolScience FairDr.Berkey Effects of Color On Memory PerformanceQuestionDoes color affect a person’s short term memory?RationaleMemory is divided into two parts short-term and long-term memory. It is utilized everyday such as knowing directions, finding things, making your bed, brushing your teeth, eating, walking, remembering people’s names, plans for the day, and etc. Short-term and long-term memory uses reasoning, planning, and problem-solving to complete these everyday tasks. Long-term memory has three different parts. This includes procedural, semantic, and episodic memory. Procedural memory, motor skills, is the knowledge of performing certain tasks. Semantic memory stores information about concepts and ideas. Episodic memory stores information from personal experience. Short-term memory also has three main parts such as encoding, limited capacity, and limited duration. Encoding is the process of breaking down information in a form that is understandable. It is used to associate things with common or personal knowledge. Limited capacity is certain amount of information can be stored at a time. Limited duration is the amount of time the information can be stored. Each duration is usually between fifteen and thirty seconds. The longer a delay the less information that will be recalled.”The short-term storage process of working memory can hold only about seven items at a time,”(Russ Dewey, 2007-2011). An item can also be known as a chunk. Psychologist George Miller had found that the number seven plus or minus two is the limited capacity of short-term memory for people. He also found out that an organized chunk or encoding, such as the grouping of words or numbers, can function as one item in memory.  “Recoding increases the quantity of data that one can process effectively and can help to overcome the seven-item information-processing limit,” (Marie Doorey, 2017). Color affects our memory in our daily lives. Certain colors can improve our memory performance.  Farley and Grant had proposed a theory that colors have a better effect on memory performance. “Greene, Bell and Boyer further explained that warm types of colors such as yellow, red and orange have greater effect on attention, compared to the cool type of colors like brown and gray,” (Jana Jan, 2014). Warm and cool colors cause different impacts and feelings. Orange, red and yellow stimulate mental activity, making it stand out. While blue, green, and purple create a sense of calmness. This association can increase or decrease how well a person can retain certain information in their short-term memory.  Color causes better attention span and recollection of information in comparison with black and white. This is because black causes an association of fear, sadness, and anger. On the other hand people associate the color red with things that are dangerous or problematic. Red stimulates the adrenal glands, causing feelings of energy and threat. This color is helpful when doing detail-orientated tasks “In 2002, researchers discovered that subjects performed five to ten percent better on standardized pattern recognition tests when they were administered in color rather black and white,” (Margie Meacham, 2015). This means that if a person wants to remember something using their short- term memory using color would increase their recollection of information.HypothesisIf words are written in color then it will lead to improved memorization of these words.MaterialsIndex CardsRed MarkerBlack MarkerPencilNotebookPhoneProceduresAges 14+ participated in my experiment.I asked 10 people such as family and friends to participate.I asked them in person if they would like to participate.I asked them to read from 20 cards in the animal category. Each person had a maximum of 10 seconds to memorize each word. Then at the end they were asked to recall the words in any order. Repeat step 4 with the food and numbers category.To test the variables 5 people were asked to read it in color ink while the other 5 were asked to read it in black ink. Each person took about 10 minutes.The data is anonymous. I only collected what color ink was used for that person and how many words each person memorized correctly in each category. The data was collected in a notebook. Only I will have access to that data.I found the average of the number of correct responses for each person in all three categories.Data Analysis Find the average of the amount of words recalled correctly for each category. Do this for only the people with the red ink.Repeat step 1 but only do this with the people had the black ink.Compare the averages.Whatever average is higher means that people do a better job memorizing with that particular ink.ConclusionI found that the total average with the red ink is 13/20 in comparison with the black ink 10/20.The data shows the people with the red ink did better than people with the black ink. My hypothesis is correct. Next time, I would change my experiment because it had some variables that were hard to control. With the words on index cards I had to make sure they stayed in the exact order. If I were to test this hypothesis again I would have all words written on one piece of paper. I would hand it to the participant and give them a set time to look at all the words. This would eliminate words shifting out of order. I would also increase the number of participants in each group. I believe with more participants and limiting the chance of variation my results would support my hypothesis even better.BibliographyFerguson, Christy Marshuetz. “Short-Term Memory.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 24 Aug. 2017, www.britannica.com/topic/short-term-memoryMcLeod, Saul. “Saul McLeod.” Simply Psychology, 1 Jan. 1970, www.simplypsychology.org/short-term-memory.htmlDewey, Russ. “The Magical Number Seven Plus or Minus Two.” The Magical Number Seven plus or Minus Two | in Chapter 06: Memory | from Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey, 2007, www.intropsych.com/ch06_memory/magical_number_seven.htmlDoorey, Marie. “George A. Miller.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 13 May 2016, www.britannica.com/biography/George-A-MillerMeacham, Margie. “How Color Can Affect Learning.” ATD, 28 Apr. 2015, www.td.org/Publications/Blogs/Science-of-Learning-Blog/2015/04/How-Color-Can-Affect-LearningAnkeny, Shannon. “Facts on Color Affecting Memory.” LEAFtv, www.leaf.tv/articles/facts-on-color-affecting-memory/Belluck, Pam. “Reinvent Wheel? Blue Room. Defusing a Bomb? Red Room.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 5 Feb. 2009, www.nytimes.com/2009/02/06/science/06color.htmlEffect Of Colors: Blue Boosts Creativity, While Red Enhances Attention To Detail.”ScienceDaily, ScienceDaily, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090205142143.htmJan, Jana. How Colors Can Enhance Memory Performance?blog.edynco.com/instructional-design/how-colors-can-enhance-memory-performance/Dzulkifli, Mariam Adawiah, and Muhammad Faiz Mustafar. “The Influence of Colour on Memory Performance: A Review.” The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences : MJMS, Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Mar. 2013, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3743993/McLeod, Saul. “Saul McLeod.” Simply Psychology, 1 Jan. 1970, www.simplypsychology.org/long-term-memory.html