The play Othello opens with Iago, the villain, complaining to his acquaintance, Roderigo, about being passed on a promotion by Othello, the prestigious Moor of Venice, who has given the lieutenant position to Cassio. A man Iago considers to be inferior in both qualifications and experience: But he (as loving his own pride and purposes) Evades them with a bumbast circumstance Horribly stuffed with epithites of war,And in conclusion,Nonsuits my mediators; for, “Certes,” says he, “I have already chose my officer.”And what was he?Forsooth, a great arithmetician, One Michael Cassio, a Florentine…That never set a squadron in the field,Nor the division of a battle knowsMore than a spinster—unless the bookish theoric,Wherein the togaed consuls can propose As masterly as he. Mere prattle without practice, Is all his soldiership. Iago learning that Othello and Desdemona, the daughter of the Venetian senator, Brabantio, have gotten married in secret he plots his revenge. Beginning with secretly causing a scene to enlighten Brabantio about the elopement, Brabantio and Othello challenged Desdemona’s loyalty Othello, and choose Othello which resulted with Brabantio disowning her. Later Othello and Cassio are posted in Cyprus and are followed by Desdemona escorted by Iago and Emilia, who is his wife and Desdemona’s handmaiden. Iago continues with his evil schemes and gets Cassio drunk as well as Roderigo to aid him, promising him that Desdemona will fall out of love with Othello but Cassio also has fallen in love with her. He gets Cassio and Roderigo fighting, which in turns gets Cassio demoted. Iago advises Cassio to plead with Desdemona to convince him to reinstate him. All while seeming as innocent as could be; commonly referred as “honest Iago”.Iago breeds suspicion in Othello’s mind about Cassio and Desdemona’s relationship because how often they congregate to talk. Othello’s jealousy grows as Iago suggests they are having an affair, though he swears that would not believe anything without proof doubt spreads in his mind. Desdemona’s handkerchief, which symbolises Othello and Desdemona’s love, ends up in Iago’s hands by chance and becomes the substantial proof that cause Othello to go into a downward spiral. Iago plants it on Cassio and tells Othello, Desdemona gave it to him, despite Desdemona’s protest Othello is convinced of her infidelity. Othello tells Iago to kill Cassio, which Iago delegates to Roderigo, who fails and Iago is forced to kill Roderigo. All the while Othello has strangled Desdemona is a devastating scene. Emilia discovers Othello and slowly comes to the realization to how this string of events occured, and Iago kills her in attempt to keep her from telling the truth but alas he was too late. He tries to escape but is caught with evidence found in letters written by Roderigo’s person. In one last devastating scene, Othello kills himself in front of Cassio and dies next to Desdemona.The play script Othello is critiqued as the most tragic of the many tragedies written by, William Shakespeare. Born in 1564 in England, William Shakespeare is one of the most influential and famous playwright. The timeless Othello is riddled with themes such as love, reputation and manipulation how they are represented in warfare during 1600s’ Italy while they are at war with the Turks. To have a deeper understanding about Othello’s cultural setting, one must know history. Because of the lack of common education back in England during the seventeenth and what little researchers know about Shakespeare’s childhood, it would be impossible for a young man who rarely traveled and grew up humbly to have the historic knowledge and understand the cultural references to write this. Regardless how the play came to be, what we have is the Tragedy of Othello and it’s themes of Warfare riddled with historic renditions based off the relationship between the Turks and Christians. During the Dark Ages refers to the fall of the Western Roman Empire during when which education, religion and art development ceased because of government pressure on people. Othello is based of the time period when those in the Venetian Army overthrew their suppressors, the Turks. The Christians were fighting for their lives and Turks were fighting to take them away. The traditional warfare tactics during the middle-ages were based on courage, skill and cruelty exclusively, it was very bloody and those who were fought were strong, and not vulnerable. That is what makes Othello such an uncommon character. Othello is not just a soldier but General for the the Venetian Republic, fighting by contract for the professional army. Yet, his exclusively military background does not prepare him for the vulnerability of possibility of his wife being unfaithful. In fact it brings him down to his knees and he in a violent fit. “Lie with her? lie on her? We say “lie on her” when they belie her! Lie with her—that’s fulsome. Handkerchief—confessions—handkerchief! To confess, and be hanged for his labor. First to be hanged, and then to confess—I tremble at it.Nature would not invest herself in such shadowing passion without some instruction. It is not words that shake me thus. Pish! Noses, ears, and lips. Is ‘t possible? Confess!—Handkerchief!—Oh, devil!—(Falls in a trance)”Despite all his training and experience Othello still collapses from the assumption of Desdemona’s infidelity, and this thoroughly expressed by his behavior when he hears about the handkerchief. This handkerchief symbolism the fragility of his and Desdemona’s love to the point where he is physically connected to the point  of reason. He doesn’t even allow Desdemona to defend herself because of his belief that justice should be served and protect the many he must kill whatever would threaten them. It is Othello’s occupation, then, that initiates the tragic process. Furthermore, Othello’s naivety and vulnerability in matters concerning love makes him vulnerable to Iago’s verbal abuse. He is quick to believe what Iago tells him, even to Iago’s surprise who states that “the Moor already changes with my poison”. Othello’s training becomes what puts the “bullet in the gun”, He has the ability to kill. Iago’s occupation and experience as a soldier also contributes to the readiness to how ready Othello is to believe him, but just as important is his reputation. Iago uses his reputation as an “honest man” to his advantage. But because it is so important to keep safe, makes it just as vulnerable to be taken away. Iago understood the behaviors of soldiers and how to manipulate them. Cassio’s newly instated promotion became an opportunity for Iago and an example for Othello demonstrates the importance of a soldiers reputation when he dismisses Cassio after his drunken brawl. Cassio cried to Iago afterwards, Cassio:”Reputation, reputation, reputation! Oh, I have lost my reputation! I have lost the immortal part of myself, and what remains is bestial. My reputation, Iago, my reputation!””As I am an honest man, I thought you had received some bodily wound. There is more sense in that than in reputation. Reputation is an idle and most false imposition, oft got without merit and lost without deserving.You have lost no reputation at all unless you repute yourself such a loser. What, man, there are ways to recover the general again. You are but now cast in his mood, a punishment more in policy than in malice, even so as one would beat his offenseless dog to affright an imperious lion. Sue to him again and he’s yours”Iago responded the significance of honour that is in every Renaissance soldiers’ lives that were dominated by it, as it is a major contribution to their training. Othello demonstrates the desire to preserve his honour when he dismisses Cassio after his drunken brawl. Othello rather solemnly states he is “no more” his lieutenant, suggesting that those that lose their honour must be dismissed as a customary practice. Othello aligns himself with this view as he enters in the barrack room, declaring his soldiers have “turned Turk” – Turks being associated with brutal and animalistic behaviour. It is Cassio’s lost honour as a soldier that causes his dismissal and continues to mobilize the plot. Othello’s brutal sense of honour is also demonstrated in a scene crucial to the tragedy when Othello decides to murder Desdemona. He says “the justice of it pleases me”, chillingly suggesting that strangling her is the moral and honourable thing to do. Othello constructs himself as a romantic and chivalric knight, and a characteristic of this identity was winning a damsel of a higher social station. If this woman was to lose her status, Othello’s self-fashioned status was also in jeopardy. This is due to vengeance being a principal element in a soldier’s life, as many wars are fought on the basis of vengeance; a soldier learns to retaliate subsequent to being wronged, and thus Othello sees this as a natural medium of correcting Desdemona’s apparent transgression, causing it to be somewhat explanatory of Othello’s merciless killing of her, the woman he loves. When discussing the murder with Iago, Othello speaks in prose showing the systematic approach to revenge, as would be common in the devising of military plans.Yet, his speech is also punctuated with short sharp utterances to reflect how his passion is beginning to prevail over his military reasoning: “O tis foul in her… with mine officer! … That’s fouler”. For Othello, that Desdemona would be “topped” by his handpicked is degrading, and far more subversive than Desdemona being unfaithful with another.Now Othello’s quest for revenge is to uphold his reputation as a great general in a way. It is also essential to the development of the play’s tragic situation that the male protagonists are soldiers as it allows the incorporation of professional jealousy – one of Iago’s apparent motivations. However, although Cassio is a valid choice for lieutenant, he does remind Iago of his promotion, even when he is on his knees. And Iago, his position as an ensign allows the audience to see the duplicity of his character and increases the irony surrounding his falseness.Many critics notice the verbal irony in the noun phrase “honest Iago” that repeated throughout the play. Iago is hardly honest, however. He professes his lack of loyalty to his superior officer, Iago: “not I for love and duty But seeming so for my peculiar end… I am not what I am”.  Lastly in the final scene, Othello stabs himself in a dramatized fashion saying to treat him as one would a Turk, he knew what he had done, killing his wife under false pretences and could not excuse himself for it. It reflects on the global war efforts from the West and East, Venice and Turkey is mirrored in the action. As is his final speech is central, as when he kills himself, it is in the same manner as “he once killed the Turk who had beaten the Venetian in Aleppo”. Therefore, he is corrupt in a sense, he still recognize the great general he once was and a “malignant and a turbaned Turk. Othello:Soft you. A word or two before you go.I have done the state some service, and they know ‘t.No more of that. I pray you, in your letters,When you shall these unlucky deeds relate,Speak of me as I am. Nothing extenuate,Nor set down aught in malice. Then must you speakOf one that loved not wisely, but too well;Of one not easily jealous, but being wrought,Perplexed in the extreme; of one whose hand,Like the base Judean, threw a pearl awayRicher than all his tribe; of one whose subdued eyes,Albeit unused to the melting mood,Drop tears as fast as the Arabian treesTheir medicinal gum. Set you down this.And say besides, that in Aleppo once,Where a malignant and a turbanned TurkBeat a Venetian and traduced the state,I took by the throat the circumcisèd dog,And smote him, thus.                           He stabs himself. Throughout his suicide Othello does not blame Iago for what he has done but himself for falling for it. Thus, the play’s domestic conflicts also dramatize the conflict between places and cultures, as the West felt itself to be in contact with the barbarous East. The precariousness of a nation’s identity is expressed through the tragedy of Othello. In conclusion, without the Othello being firmly founded on a military basis, the tragic plot could not be effectively mobilized. The milieu of the soldiers also allows the attitudes and relationships in the play to unfold, and also show how the desired characteristics of a soldier are in direct opposition to acting in a civilized and rational way in situations away from the battlefield