There is a traditional
culture in China call “pattern of the make-up” it has thousand years history from
the Chinese traditional art “Peking opera”. At that time the masks are used on
the war, people using it intimidate the enemies. In the Northern and Southern
Dynasties and the Sui Tang Dynasties (Anno domini 420, 907), there was a
“masquerade” in the dance program, almost all human groups have had
totem worship in their tribal times.

      Chinese ancestors portrayed some of the
objects or concepts they were worshiping and gave them some ritual worship. Drama
actors on the stage outlined facial mask are used to help enhance the character
of the characters, appearance, status, to achieve rich stage colour, beautify
the stage effect. The main features of “pattern of the make-up” have the
following three points: Firstly, the beauty and ugly ingenious combination, it
is characterized by the use of different colours of oil paintings, showing a
different personality, whether it is beauty or ugly character.

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     Peking opera mask is a freehand and
exaggerated art. It often uses facial features such as bats, swallow wings and
butterfly wings to make facial expressions. Secondly, closely related to the
character’s personality,

     Peking opera mask colours represent
different character, for example, red represents loyalty, black represents
integrity, but yellow represents the cruel, white represents the treacherous
person. Ancestors use colour to express emotions, and combine these colours to
draw the masks. As one of the Chinese traditional culture, it has been widely
recognized both at home and abroad.

      There
are four different characters of Peking opera, respectively Sheng(male roles),
Dan(female roles),Jing(roles with painted faces) and Chou or clown(a comic
character).

     Laosheng(middle age or old man), mostly
impersonation positive personality character, sometimes wear moustache with red
face make-up impersonation Guan Yu(From the Three kingdom).

     Xiaosheng(young man) and Wusheng(men with
martial skills). Jing(Wen Jing and Wu Jing), these are all have painted face.
Wen Jing is a variety of colours outline the makeup of the mask as a prominent
sign of the face, showing the personality temperament rough, wonderful, heroic
figures. Wu Jing also has painted face but different with Wen, Wu is focusing
on the martial skills same with Wusheng. However, the Chou has Wen chou and Wu
chou.

     These characters are put the make-up
between the nose and eyes, likes funny and the make-up mostly is white colour
also means treacherous people. Wuchou is also focusing on the martial and little
funny skills on the stage.   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Different make-up

The Peking opera has
different type’s make-up and pattern, including Rubbing, Wiping and Hooking
face. Rubbing face (??)(pic
1), is the oldest make-up of Peking opera, it focusing on different personal character.
Rubbing face (??),
the basic form of rubbing face “is the whole face, hook method as”
rubbing “, used to exaggerate the skin colour, without using any skills or
other forms, the entire makeup makes the character look powerful, look heavy.
The overall color of the main, red and black. Use lines to accentuate people’s
eyes, nose and eyebrows. Make character makeup more distinctive. All colours
are rubbed directly on the face with fingers. The makeup is very real.

For Wiping face(??)?pic 2?, the Wiping face is a more distinctive way
of making up Peking Opera, with white powder on the face to   cover
the original face, and then use a pen dipped colors The details of the nose and
face are sketched out one by one, for this color of make-up is usually a person
who is treacherous and does not dare to show his true face. They use white to
cover their original features.

Furthermore, the Hooking
face(pic 3) this different between Rubbing and Wiping face. In contrast to the
other two types of make-up, the character needs to clear the face first, then
use the pen to draw the eyebrows directly on the face, eyes and nose for positioning,
and then use the to remove the excess hair to make up, and then use the tape to
raise the eye angle to make the eyes bigger, and finally wear the accessories. The
color of the outline is many, usually decorated with gold.

Crooked face(pic 4) is a
special makeup, it using asymmetric approach highlights the characters,
sometimes expresses the characters ugly but kind-hearted but sometimes said in
character and the extremely cruel and merciless. Different faces are using same
technique, the direct use of a brush dipped in paint with the features of the
face line, but all the features are distorted asymmetric, more asymmetric said
this character is bad.

 

Colour effect

 

In Peking
opera, the difference in color of face is that the character and personality of
the characters that it symbolizes are called dominant colors . The
effects of each color is different , the founders using
red , blue , white , purple , gold , black and silver , to express each role ‘
s feelings and characters , each color can highlight the character of the actors,
the good or bad , the good and evil. The make-up is rich in color, not just
because it looks good, it also expresses emotion, people use different faces to
express different personalities, red represents bravery, blue represents
selflessness and black represents integrity. They all express the same meaning
on different levels, bravery and integrity, but use different colors to express
these same characters. The white is meaning treachery; green is irritability and
yellow is stability. They reflect three completely different characters; can
see that these colors are very interesting, when people looking at these faces,
people can easily identify the character of the character from the color of
each face. The make-up combines a variety of colors, making different effects
and bringing different performances to the audience.

 

Color
in Peking opera

 

There are many colors in Peking opera, whatever the color of clothes or on the make-up. People using different colors to creative character bad, good and special point. There are nine different colors in Peking opera, the nine colors combine with each other, the new feature has emerged. Red, the color meaning warm and happy. In ancient times, people in China did wall painted red, red is believed to expel evil. In the traditional culture, Chinese red is the color of fire, people believed red is hope. Also, the red also represents love. In Peking Opera, red stands for bravery and narrow sense, just like Guan Yu(pic1) in the three Kingdoms, the makeup is red. But on the other hand, red has ironic significance, representing the false good people. Black , which represents calm and sophistication , represents water in the north as well as in ancient China . In Kenya’s Marseilles person mind, the black represents the overcast sky, rainy season arrives, therefore symbolic prosperity and life. Also the black in the fashion world represents a stable and dignified style. In Peking Opera, black refers to fortitude, bravery and wisdom. Just like Bao Gong (pic 5) with black makeup, it is honest and selfless, but sometimes black refers to ugly people or ghosts. White stands for purity, peace and respect. White also brings cold and severe feelings. In ancient China, white represented treacherous and sinister color. In western culture. White symbolizes a white wedding dress and a pure heart, but some people believe that white is a bad color, it represents death. White also has a sense of science and technology, a very high feeling. In the Peking Opera, white shows the character of the sinister and false, like Cao Cao(pic 6), in the Three Kingdoms, and has succeeded in different means. Overall, Beijing opera types of facial makeup in operas of color painting methods, basically divided into three categories: rub face, Wiping face, Hooking face and crooked face. Types of facial makeup in operas initial role is exaggerated her role with striking places and face the veins, using exaggerated by the performance of dramatis personae of personality, psychological and physiological characteristics, and using this to the entire drama circumstances, but Later types of facial makeup in operas by Kan to complex, from rough to the small, from shallow to deep, itself becoming a nation of characteristics, to the facial expression means for the pictorial arts.