Year

2012

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2013

2014

2015

2016

Publicly accessible slow chargers

1500                                                  

2400

2606

4787

16550

Publicly accessible fast chargers

18                                                      

47

317

784

1403

Total

1518                                                  

2447

2923

5571

17953

 

Table
12
shows the Number of FCVs in Germany from 2013 to 2017.

Table 12. Number of FCVs in Germany 30

Year (beginning of)

Number of FCVs
 

2013

288

2014

295

2016

333

2016

399

2017

477

 

Table
13
shows BEV and PHEV stock in Germany from 2012 20 2016.

Table 13. BEV and PHEV stock in Germany (2012-2016)
19

Year

Number of BEVs and PHEVs (thousands)
 

2012

5.26  (70% BEV, 30% PHEV)

2013

12.19  (75% BEV, 25% PHEV)

2014

24.93 (70% BEV, 30% PHEV)

2015

48.12 (62% BEV, 38% PHEV)

2016

72.73  (56% BEV, 44% PHEV)

 

The development of HRSs in Germany is supported by H2 Mobility which is a joint venture
between six industrial partners 31.
This program is pursued in three phases:

·       
Phase 0: enhancing R&D
and demonstration activities;

·       
Phase 1: market preparation
and validation;

·       
Phase 2: attracting
external investors.

Government is
planning to invest EUR 300 million in extending the network of fast-recharging
stations 32.
Table
14
shows HRS and FCV deployment for the H2-Mobility roll-out plan in Germany
through 2030.

Table 14. HRS and
Car deployment for the H2-Mobility roll-out plan in Germany through 2030
33

Year

2020

2030

Number of FCVs (thousands)

150

1,800

Number of HRSs

400

1000

In more recent
publications, a target of 400 HRSs for 2023 is announced 34.
The German Federal Government has the target of putting one million electric
vehicles on the road by 2020 and possibly
reaching over five million by 2030 35.
In a report published by Republic of Korea ministry of environment 23,
the FCV target for Germany was mentioned
as 650,000 by 2025 and 1.8 million by 2030 which seems optimistic considering
the current number of FCVs in Germany.

France

 In France,
there is a bonus-malus system based on type-approval CO2 emissions.
Vehicles with CO2 emission between 0 and 20 g per
kilometer receive a bonus of 27% of their purchase price up to EUR 6,300. This category includes 100% electric vehicles (BEVs
and FCVs).  Vehicles with CO2 emissions
between 21 and 60 g/km are eligible for
a bonus covering 20% of their purchase price up to EUR 4000. This category includes PHEVs. Vehicles with CO2 emissions
above 131 g/km are subject to increased taxes which can mount up to EUR 8,000
3637 38.

France has a
national implementation plan for HRSs based on a cluster model approach 39.
This approach is deployed in three
phases. In the first phase, infrastructure development is focused on local fleets in the early years. In that sense, HRSs
and FCVs are deployed based on the identification of local clients. This method
guarantees that a good HRS load factor is achievable from the beginning of the
project 39.
In this method, Fleet vehicles with predictable driving and refueling patterns
which make regular visits to a HRS are defined in a cluster. Then one or multiple
HRSs are responsible for supporting a
cluster.

Figure 1. HRS supporting vehicle clusters-
method considered in France’s HRS planning 39

In the second phase, clusters are linked together,
and in the third phase, FCV full-scale
commercialization is pursued.

A considerable
amount of funding for the development of HRSs in France is from European
funding. A European funding is secured for three
HRSs in Rodez, Sarreguemines, and Paris under
the 35 MEUR H2 Mobility Europe project, with the balance met by private sector
companies within the Mobilité Hydrogène France coalition. Another
European funding of EUR 4 million is allocated
from the Connecting Europe Facility for the deployment of 15 stations in the
Normandy region 40.

In France, financial incentives can take the form of a
tax credit equivalent to 30% of a home charger or subsidies for the
installation of residential or workplace chargers 19.
French environmental and energy agency (ADEME)
covers 50% of costs for normal and fast charging points for BEVs and 30% of
costs for rapid charge points if the chargers are publicly available 41.

As of November
2016, there were 14 HRSs in France 42. Table
15 shows the number of charging points in France from
2012 to 2016.

Table 15. Number of charging points in France
(2012-2016) 19

Year

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Publicly accessible slow chargers

800

1700

1700

10122

14612

Publicly accessible fast chargers

9

102

127

543

1231

Total

809

1802

1827

10665

15843

 

As of November
2016, there were 130 FCVs in France 42. Table
16
shows BEV and PHEV stock in France from 2012 to 2016.

Table 16. BEV and PHEV stock in France (2012-2016) 19

Year

Number of BEVs and PHEVs (thousands)
 

2012

 9.29 (93% BEV, 7%
PHEV)

2013

18.91 (92% BEV, 8% PHEV)

2014

31.54 (89% BEV, 11% PHEV)

2015

54.49(83% BEV, 17% PHEV)

2016

84 (80% BEV, 20% PHEV)

 

Table
17 shows France’s target for FCV and HRSs through
2030 42.

Table 17. France’s target for FCV and HRSs through
2030 42

Year

2018-2019

2030

FCVs

1,000

800,000

HRSs

100

600

 

France’s target for the number of EVs is between one and two million by 2020 22. France has also announced that it is ending the sale of petrol and diesel vehicles by 2040.